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Unformatted text preview: Animal Behavior Study Guide 8/28- not a passive field, full of political traps and loopholes History- main founder Charles Darwin , excellent observer- in 1800s instincts- no good scientific definition, Darwin thought of them as unlearned patterns- mid 1850s instincts generated thru examples not definitions ex. cats always copulate in the same way - 1930 Mendell added genetics to science because behavior is genetically controlled- Darwin noted that morphology and behavior could be manipulated thru breeding expts, also saw that animals perform similar activities with variations fine tuned for their habitat- Darwin posed the question of Do animals know what they are doing?- Darwin said that the first time an animal performs an instinct, it does not know, but it learns from its first encounter- Instincts are modifiable and thus adaptable- Darwin did not base most things on science but on perception and our beliefs about animals William James- 1890- Wrote Principles of Psychology- In those times psychology was mostly about animals and not humans, but that has changed now- Instinct- faculty in acting such a way to produce certain ends without foresight of the ends and without previous education of the performance- Thought that a particular sensation had to be present to call forth such a behavior- a stimulus 3 kinds of instincts- Instincts in infants- they have behaviors that disappear with maturation (critical instincts) suckling response- Reflex an eye blink or other rapid things- Impulsive- eating, escape, copulating- cannot be controlled because the purpose is not known James thought that instincts were preprogrammed bundles of neurons in the brain- each activity has a specific center in the brain From late 1800s to late 1900s- J Loeb (complainer/whiner) said that AB is not a science and needs to based on scientific method- He was a botanist that studied movement in plants to the sun- he wanted to predict behavior in animals based on a stimulus so he applied his plant tactics to animals- Started with amoeba and little things- called movements tropisms and was successful and became well know- He tried to apply this to other animals and it did not work and he was no longer successful and his ideas became too complex and messed up From 1915 to 1920 AB came to a halt 1920- Watson- changes psychology depts. By saying you should only study things you can experiment on changed focus to study of humans and behaviorism Watsons student Skinner- further pursued this line of study in political climate that you can do anything you put your mind to. You just have to work hard enough Skinner found a way to quantify the study of animals that had no human bias- either yes or now or no response 1930 William Mcdougall- said humans are so smart because we have so many instincts 8/30 Anthropomorphisms- applying human traits to non human things- Though of animals as lesser forms of humans- People believed instincts were modifiable- Watson said that everyone has to be trained and educated properly- learning is a testable...
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- Fall '07