Comm Crit Notes

Comm Crit Notes - Comm Crit Notes Jan 8 2007 What is...

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Comm Crit Notes Jan. 8, 2007 What is rhetoric? 1. Rhetoric as persuasion: a. Aristotle: Rhetoric is “the faculty of discovering in every case the available means of persuasion.” b. Scope: The scope is narrow. That which is persuaded is that which is intended. What is persuasion intentionally? c. Disciplinary Connections: Closely tied to politics and history. Aristotle argues that which makes us human is our speech. Speech is logos, and it allows us to reason. According to Aristotle, we are the only political animals. It makes us superior (ex. Dogs cannot talk about their barking…) d. Rhetoric lies at the intersection of social and intellectual history (Ernest J. Wrage). Wrage says that we should be interested in the study of ideas as rhetoricians. However, ideas are not to be deified. Ideas can come from texts, or other seemingly insignificant sources. i. History of Ideas: Ideas had to come from somewhere, comes from Fugitive discourse. ii. Ideas (ex. Equality, freedom, justice, etc.) come from Fugitive Discourse: The underground news. iii. Naturalistic approach to the history of ideas: Breadth vs. depth, search for all types of ideas. 2. Rhetoric as Meaning: a. Kenneth Burke: “Wherever there is persuasion, there is rhetoric. And wherever there is meaning there is persuasion.” b. Scope: It is huge. Anything we put meaning into we invest meaning into. Anything we have named, it is right for a rhetorician to ask about. c. Disciplinary Connections: Anthropology (study of people) is closely connected to rhetoric. d. Rhetorical Situation (Lloyd F. Bitzer) i. Discusses exigence, and the fitting response. There must be a problem (imperfection marked by urgency). This is his response to the Aristotlian definition where it seems like there is not a problem. We must constrain the way we speak as well, we must know our audience and be sensitive to their needs. ii. Chronos: Sequential time. There is a time for everything. We are involved in chronos. e. Critique of Bitzer (Richard Vatz) i. Rhetor creates the exigence. If the rhetor does not say there is a problem, then it does not exists. ii. Bitzer makes all of it too simple. Vatz emphasizes framing. iii. Kairos : Kairos is Gods time, the in between time that we create. f. Question: Does rhetoric reflect or shape reality? g. Michel Foucault- Discusses homosexuality, and how other cultures do not
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see harsh lines between homo/hetero sex. i. For example, people who exhibited certain characteristics were “wise” 3. Rhetoric as Epistemic: a. Robert L. Scott: “rhetoric may be viewed not as a matter of giving effectiveness to truth but of creating truth.” b. Scope: Rhetoric is the foundation of knowledge. Instead of having a PH. D in biology, we should have a Doctorate of Rhetoric in Biology. c.
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course COMM 101 taught by Professor Spencer during the Spring '08 term at Westmont.

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Comm Crit Notes - Comm Crit Notes Jan 8 2007 What is...

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