Final Exam Study Guide - Final Exam Study Guide Digestion...

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Final Exam Study Guide Digestion and Nutrition Chapter 27 Nutrition – obtaining energy Autotrophic – produces own food Heterotrophic – requires accusition of energy Mixotrophic – both auto and hetero trophic Herbivoreous – eat at low level and obtain a lot of energy because eat autotrophs Carivorous – secondary consumers Insectivores – eat insects Piscivores – eat fishes Omnivorous – both herivoreous and carivorous Detritus – broken down organic material Humus – terrestial detritus 5 stages of food breakdown Ingestion – enterence of food into body Mastication – chewing Deglutition – swallowing Bolus – food mass Peristalsis – movement trough muscular contrations Digestion – breakdown of food Secretion – Segmentation – Chemical – catabolism, break down from complex to simple Physical – trituration, breakdown by physical movements Absortion – cross cell membran, gain of energy from broke down bolus Egestion – defecation, expulsion of waste
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Pepsin – from stomach for protein breakdown into small peptides Trypsin – from pancreas for protein breakdown into small peptides Chymotryspin – Endo/exo peptidases – from small intestines for polypeptide breakdown into amino acids Bile salts – from liver for lipid breakdown into colloidal fats Lipases – from pancreas for colloidal fat breakdown into fatty acids and glycerol Amylases – from salivary glands and pancreas for breakdown of carbohydrates into disaccharides Cellulase – in snails, bacteria, herbivous arthropods, breakdown of cellulose Chitinases – in frogs Nucleic Acids – Nucleotides – sugar phosphorus and nitrogen base Nucleosides –removes phosphorus group Gut - Intracellular digestion – within cells, primitive Enocytosis – bringing something into cell Food Vacuole – Lysosomes – cell organelles that carry out digestion Extracellular digestion – outside of cells, advanced Blind-intestine – incomplete digestive system, only 1 opening Gastrovascular cavity – Open intestine – complete digestive system, 2 openings Mouth – where food enters Buccal cavity – all space inside mouth
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Pharynx – back of mouth shared by respitory system Esophagus – tube that connects entry with digestive system Crop – where food is stored Gizzard – where food is ground Stomach – storage area for food Intestine – digestion and absorbion occurs Rectum – Anus – Digestive glands – release chemicals for digestion from mouth, stomach, intestines, pancreass Continouous feeders – eat continiually Discontinious feeders – do not feed coniniually Sucking and cropping herbivores – longer gut length, increase absortion, and longer digestive time Ruminant – regurgitates food and swallows it again Reticulum – contains microbes found in cow Rumen – contains microbes found in cow Omasum – contains liquid food Abomasum – true stomach Rapitorial feeding – seeking, active predators, short small gut, rapid digestion Fluid Feeding – involves eating liquid material
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Final Exam Study Guide - Final Exam Study Guide Digestion...

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