Anatomy and Physiology I-Chapter 3 fall 2017 (2).ppt -...

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1Anatomy and Physiology I-Chapter 3-Cellular Level of OrganizationIt wasn't raining when Noah built the ark.-Howard Ruff
2NORTHEAST STATE TECHNICAL COMMUNITY COLLEGEANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY IModule 3TITLE:Cell BiologyTEXT REFERENCE:Chapter 3 (Martini)OBJECTIVES:Upon completion of this module the student will be ableto:Describe the general characteristics of a composite cell.Explain the structure of a cell membrane.Describe each kind of cytoplasmic organelle and explain its function.Describe the cell nucleus and its parts.Explain membrane structure, transport and permeability.Describe tonicity/osmolarity.Describe the molecular structure of DNA.Describe the events in proteinsynthesis/transcription/translation/protein formation.Explain how a cell reproduces.Describe the role of mitosis and meiosis.
3Subatomic particles> atoms> chemical compounds>cells> tissues> organs> systems> bodyAtoms –Building blocks ofcellsCells-Building block oftissueRobert Hooke discovered cells from a plant in 1665;witheach human having an estimated100,000,000,000,000 cells.There are approximately 200 different kinds of human cells.5 Basic concepts of cells related to the Human Body (Cell Theory)1.Cells are building blocks of all plants and animals.2.Cells are produced by division of existing cells.3.Cells are smallest units that perform physiological functions.4.Each cell maintains homeostasis.5.Homeostasis at the tissue, organ, and organism is a function of coordinated effort bycells.Chapter 3-Cellular Level of OrganizationObjective 3.1
4Study of cells – cytology(cyto – cells) (ology – study of)Normally need a light microscope or electron microscope to see cells and organelles.Two Classes of Cells1.Sex Cells –sperm cells in males, oocyte cells in females.2.Somatic cells -–all other cells in the body.-Cellis surroundedby“watery medium”calledExtracellular fluid (ECF).-Cell membraneseparatesthecellcontents (cytoplasm)fromECF.Cytoplasm is made up of:1.cytosol (liquid/ICF)2.organelles (little organs)- intracellular structuresChapter 3-Cellular Level of OrganizationObjective 3.2
5CELL STRUCTUREChapter 3-Cellular Level of OrganizationObjective 3.2
6CELL STRUCTURE:A).Cell Membrane –also called the“plasma membrane”.Functions:1.Physical isolation-separates the inside ofcellsfromextracellular fluid.2.Sensitivity –Membraneis first to sense changes in theextra cellular fluid, (pH) also receivessignals from other cells3.Regulates exchange with environment – membranedetermines what comes into or is released outof thecell;allows ions and nutrients to enter and waste to leave.4.Structural support –provides support inside cells and attaches cells together to make tissues.Chapter 3-Cellular Level of OrganizationObjective 3.2
7CELL STRUCTURE:A).Cell MembranePhospholipid Bilayer –Two layers ofphospholipidswith twohydrophobic tailsand a hydrophilic head.Tailsbind togetheraway fromH2O.

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