christina maslach was one of about 50 visitors who

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Unformatted text preview: rs who had arrived after the experiment had began... She was the only one who complained about it The only one who suggested that it be stopped Full debriefing... Zimbardo: On the last day, we held a series of encounter sessions, first with all the guards, then with all the prisoners (including those who had been released earlier), and finally with the guards, prisoners, and staff together. We did this in order to get everyone's feelings out in the open... A final question... No guards left the experiment most seemed to enjoy it The prisoners were abused some sobbed their way out What would you have done differently had you been a guard? A prisoner? How about in the real world? This naturalistic observation type of experiment seems to illustrate this effect... In 1969, the Chief of Police of the California community of Menlo Park, in the interest of improving community relations, embarked on a program whose most apparent feature was a change in the style of police attire The police of Menlo Park shifted from the typical blue, military style uniform to a civilian green blazer It's all in the uniform? Does the traditional police uniform bring about a sense of deindividuation? If so, what effect do you think the "green blazer" had? Had to wear jeans today... Lang (1986) Casually dressed teachers achieve higher academic performance and receive fewer disciplinary problems from students Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Johnson and Downing (1979) Crowds and Deindividuation: The Halloween Studies Dierner et al. (1976) Trick-or-treaters in groups more likely to steal extra candy than individual kids, unless they were individuated by being asked their names Beaman et al. (1979) Anonymous children in Halloween costumes stole more from a candy jar than kids asked their first names Even less likely to steal if a mirror was put behind the candy bowl Back to the real world... Mullen (1986) Bigger the mob, the greater the atrocities Zimbardo (1970): The abandoned car study Palo Alto, California vs. NYC Real Groups Real groups (e.g., sororities) are distinguished from aggregations (e.g., crowds of strangers on the street) by: Interdependence: Group members need each other to reach shared goals. Group identity: Individuals perceive themselves as belonging together. Group structure: Everyone has a role Group Structure Roles Expectations held by group members for how members in particular positions ought to behave. Example: A sorority president is expected to make decisions and guide discussion at weekly meetings Group Structure Status Hierarchy A ranking of group members by their power and influence over other members Example: A sorority pledge is below a regular member, who is below the president Group Roles People's roles in a group can be formal or informal Two fundamental types of roles: An instrumental role to help the group achieve its tasks An expressive role to provide emotional support and maintain morale Group Norms Groups establish norms or rules of conduct for members Norms may be either formal or informal Group Cohesiveness The strength of the bonds among group members Interpersonal cohesiveness: Enjoyment of one another's company Task cohesiveness: Commitment to the group's task Discussion and Decision Making Group polarization The exaggeration through group discussion on initial tendencies in the th...
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