Unformatted text preview: ttentional conflict between focusing on task and inspecting the distracting stimulus creates arousal Can hurt performance sometimes and help sometimes Presence of others can create a distractions leading to poorer performance But sometimes will stimulate greater effort to overcome the attentional conflict "Tunnel vision" can help on some tasks Social Loafing A group-produced reduction in individual output on easy tasks in which contributions are pooled Individuals in a group who are working below their potential Ringelman's (1880's) experiments Individual output declines on pooled tasks in all his experiments For example in a rope-tugging task Units pulled in rope-tugging task: 1 person 100 2 people 186 3 people 255 8 people 392 Social Loafing Ingham et al (1974) Blind folded rope pulling DV: Effort IV: Thought people were behind them or not Subjects pulled 18% harder when they thought they were alone Latane, Williams, and Harkins (1979) Sat participant in a group of 6 people... Blindfolded participant and had them put on headphones Played clapping or shouting over headphones I.V. thought they were making noise alone or with 5 others Results: 1/3 less noise when they thought others were also making noise Why does loafing happen ? Diffusion of responsibility: In a group we feel able to share responsibility and this may lead to a reduction of effort Free-rider effect: If we feel like our contribution is not essential...still benefit from the group and give little in return (low input, high output) Sucker effect: Willing to do your share but not more than that (esp. if others are free-riding) Since everyone is benefiting and getting credit, you don't want to be the sucker who does all the work (and no recognition), therefore do the minimum requirement We loaf less when... If personal efforts are identifiable If a task is challenging, appealing, or involving If the task is meaningful and important If we think our contribution is essential If we are working with friends vs. strangers If the group expects to be punished for poor performance If the group is small If the group is cohesive Collective Effort Model Individuals try hard on a collective task when they think their efforts will help them achieve outcomes they personally value Deindividuation Theory Deindividuation theory is a social psychological account of the individual in the crowd Deindividuation is a psychological state of decreased self-evaluation, causing anti-normative and disinhibited behavior Zimbardo, Haney, Banks, & Jaffe (1973) One of the all-time great psychological experiments Illustrates deindividuation Stanford Prison Experiment Thirty years ago, a group of young men were rounded up by Palo Alto police and dropped off at a new jail -- in the Stanford Psychology Department These were just like real arrests... On a quiet Sunday morning... each was arrested for violation of Penal Codes 211, Armed Ro...
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- Spring '10
- Social Psychology, Stanford prison experiment, Triplett