Unformatted text preview: inking of group members Originally, this effect was labeled the "riskyshift" phenomenon Group Polarization Imagine you were considering the pros and cons of going to grad school, and you talked it over with two groups: Your family: Who was initially slightly opposed to the idea Your fellow students: Who were initially slightly favorable After discussion within each group (see next slide) Attitude Towards Grad School Definite GO After discussion, the group that initially favored grad school would be even more strongly in favor Unsure Conversely, the group that initially disfavored grad school would be even more opposed Definite NO (Get A Job!) Before Group Discussion After Group Discussion Moscovici and Zavalloni (1969) Here group discussion enhanced the average inclination of group members... French students liked their premier more, but Americans less, after discussing these topics in a group Myers and Bishop (1970) Used high and low prejudiced high school students as participants... Had them talk about racial attitudes with likeminded students Results? Why do groups polarize after discussion? Persuasive arguments With even a slight bias in one direction, you'll hear more favorable arguments on that side Social comparison When members realize the group is leaning in one direction, they may seek acceptance by moving further in that direction Groupthink Group decision-making that is not optimal, sometimes disastrous, because the group's primary goal is consensus instead of accuracy They seem to have a greater desire to get along and agree with one another than to generate and critically evaluate alternative viewpoints and positions The deterioration of group judgment produced by striving for consensus Examples: NASA tragedies, Bay of Pigs, etc. Symptoms The group overestimating their might and right... Illusions of invulnerability- over-optimism, blind to warnings Unquestioned belief in the group's morality Symptoms Members become close-minded Rationalization discounts challenges by justifying their decisions Holding a stereotyped view of the opponent (weak, dumb) Symptoms Pressures toward uniformity Conformity pressure- those who raise doubts are rebuffed. (ridiculed) Self censorship- disagreements are uncomfortable Illusions of unanimity-everyone keeps quite, seems like everyone is unanimous (like pluralistic ignorance) Mindguards-some members keep information (that would lead to question) from the group THE CHALLENGER: A MODEL OF DEFECTIVE DECISION-MAKING Jesse Moore has the ultimate authority to approve or scrub the shuttle mission An engineer later testified that the o-ring seals have never been tested below 53 degrees F Problems started when the temperature in Florida dropped in the low 20's The O-rings had long been classified as a critical component of rocket motor failure that without back up could cause loss of life or the rocket How can we prevent groupthink? Be impartial; don't endorse any position Encourage critical evaluation; devil's advocate Subdivide the group Encourage and welcome criticisms from ou...
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- Spring '10
- Social Psychology, Stanford prison experiment, Triplett