Solutions to 100 passage-based Biology questions

Due to the physical exertion of skiing his cells had

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Unformatted text preview: ue to the physical exertion of skiing, his cells had an increased need for oxygen. 12. C. According to the passage, Norman was in excellent physical condition prior to his diving trip. After his first diving experience, he noticed an elevated pulse rate and ventilation rate. The most likely explanation for his body’s response was the activation of his sympathetic autonomic nervous system—the “fight or flight” response caused by adrenaline. 13. B. According to the passage, Norman went skiing in the mountains. At first, he noticed an elevated pulse rate and ventilation rate. As the week progressed, these rates dropped, but were still higher than usual. This prolonged increase in heart rate and breathing rate was most likely the cause of hypoxia (insufficient oxygen to the body cells) caused by insufficient blood hemoglobin to supply oxygen for exercise at the low oxygen pressure found at high altitudes. 14. B. According to the passage, Norman was in excellent physical condition prior to his diving trip. After his first diving experience, he noticed an elevated pulse rate and ventilation rate. According to the item, he also noticed that he produced more urine than usual. The increased urine production can be explained by an increased blood pressure caused by adrenaline, released in response to excitement or anxiety—the fight or flight response. 15. D. The sympathetic autonomic nervous system stimulates the heart during stressful situations, increasing the rate via adrenaline. Therefore, the parasympathetic nervous system is involved in slowing the heart rate. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter utilized by the parasympathetic nervous system. 16. B. The “lub” sound in the “lub-dup” of a heart beat is caused by closing of the aortic and pulmonary valves during ventricular systole. The blood is forced against the closed valves, causing the valves to act like a drum. 17. D. The darkening of the skin is a direct response to the UV spectrum in sunlight. The skin increases its production of melanin in the melanocytes to form a darker, more opaque epidermis, thereby protectin...
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