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ch21 1. Charles Darwin argued that evolution is accomplished by the process of natural selection. Which of the following is not important to the concept of natural selection? A. Most organisms are capable of producing more offspring than typically survive. B. Phenotypic variation that an organism acquires in its lifetime is passed on to its offspring. C. Phenotypic variation exists within populations. D. Phenotypic variation can influence reproductive success. E. Phenotypic variation within a species is due in part to inherited characteristics. 2. Natural selection varies the shape of the beaks among Darwin's finches in response to: A. the available food supply. B. the available nest building material supplies. C. the availability of potential mating partners. D. the presence of ectoparasites on their feathers. E. the need to improve their feather preening abilities. 3. Which one of the following observations was not important in the studies done on the medium ground finch ( Geospiza fortis ) by Peter and Rosemary Grant to verify Darwin's selection hypothesis? A. Considerable variation existed in the bill size and shape in this finch. B. During the 30-year period of the study, the dryness of climate varied considerably. C. The medium ground finch showed assortive mating according to bill size and shape. D. Bill shape (depth) varied with the dryness of the year. E. Offspring were similar to parents in bill size and shape. 4. In studying the medium ground finch on Daphne Major, the Grants noted that each generation of finches had beaks: A. best suited for their parents' environment. B. best suited for their current environment. C. smaller than those of the previous generation. D. larger than those of the previous generation. 5. Which aspect of natural selection is illustrated by figure 21.1b? A. Variation must exist in the population. B. Variation among individuals must be genetically transmissible to the next generation. C. Variation among individuals leads to differences in lifetime reproductive success. D. More individuals are produced each generation than the environment can support, resulting in competition for survival. 6. Industrial melanism is a term A. describing the color change induced by living in industrialized areas. B. explaining that the darker moths have higher mutation rates because of industrialization. C. describing the evolutionary process in which initially light-colored organisms become dark as a result of natural selection. D. explaining that the darker moths having higher reproductive success because of their pigmentation. E. describing the widespread implementation of pollution controls.
7. The evidence for industrial melanism as being due to an increase in the dark allele was provided from field tests carried out by A. Kettlewell. B. Lamarck.
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