WCC Anatomy and Physiology I Unit 2 Notes.docx - WCC...

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WCC Anatomy and Physiology IUnit 2 NotesConnective Tissue 4- ways- cells and fibers in non-living matrix-Ct Proper- Loose CT- Areolar: vascular linings, fibrous membranesmakes a perichondrium, which surrounds cartilage and part of a periosteum whichsurrounds bone and tissue.Adipose: lipid storage(fats) Yellow Marrow(reticular)Dense CT: mostly fibersRegular: Tendons and LigamentsIrregular: Joint Capsule(Elastic CT)- not found in skeletal system-Cartilage- Avascular(Non-vascular- non direct incoming blood supply)Perichondrium surrounds the cartilage.. Chondrocytes are in the Lacuna.“Chondroblasts”- they reach their adult height and then become chondrocytesGlucosamine Sulfate and Chondroitin are the supplements needed for health cartilage.Mitosis within the perichondrium is called interstitial growth. We can provide layers onthe surface... this is called appositional growth.This demonstrates how our bones get thicker over time.Types of Cartilage-Hyaline Cartilage: fetal skeleton, growth plates (longitudinal), articular cart, Joints, Ringsof Trachea, Larynx, nasal septumJoint- where two bones meet-Fibrocartilage: Joints: IVD, joint accessories: menisci(Elastic Cart)
-Osseous-Blood- forms the Red Marrow- where we produce our formed elements with transformsinto red and white blood cells, as well as platelets.The Skeletal SystemGoals?1)Protection-2)Movement and locomotion- combination of muscle and bones3)Ventilation- the exchange of air.. when we inhale(inspiration).. our diaphragm contracts andmoves down... ribs and out/diaphragmDuring expiration—the ribs move down and in.. and the diaphragm relaxes andmoves up…Anything that interferes with the thorax interferes with ventilation.4)Hematopoiesis- Blood Formation: Red Marrow Hematoblasts5)Nutrient Storage- Yellow Marrow… which is exactly Adipose TissueBony Matrix- Calcium salts... Hydroxyapatite (CaCO3, CaPO4,CaCl2)Ca+2 Homeostasis; 9-11mg/100ml blood3 Bone Cell Types- (Osteoporosis)- breaking down of bone tissue (30%)1)Osteoblasts- does bone deposit... new bone matrix... secrets collagen fibers and…2)Osteocyte- maintains the bone matrix.. in lacuna just like chondrocytes...3)Osteoclast- break down bone resorption5 Principle Bone Types1)Long Bone (Ex- humerus)- The length is greater than their width. They present twoossification centers. ossification is the process where we take one type of connectivetissue and create it to a bone.Epiphyseal Plates: Hyaline Cartilage- responsible for longitudinal growth.We form new cartilage at both ends of the long bones... Thus pushing the ends of the long bonesin the opposite directions… As we produce new cartilage up.. we produce the old cartilage intobone.The cartilage plates never get thicker!2)Short Bones (Trapezoid)- include the carpals and tarsals
3)Flat Bones (Sternum)- they are slightly curved. Include the Bones that make up thecranium and some that make up the sternum and the scapula.

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