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Chapter 3 Outline 2

Chapter 3 Outline 2 - Paul Burkhart Chapter 3 Outline...

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Paul Burkhart Chapter 3 Outline Social Beliefs and Judgments – our judgments of people depend on how we explain their behavior. Do we attribute behaviors t situational or personality factors? I. How do we explain others? a. Attributing Causality: To the person or the situation i. Attribution Theory – The theory of how people explain others’ behavior. 1. Dispositional Attribution – Attributing behavior to the person’s disposition and traits. 2. Situational Attribution – Attributing behavior to the environment. ii. Inferring traits – Theory of correspondent inferences: (Edward Jones and Keith Davis) specify conditions under which we attribute actions to a person’s disposition and traits. “Normal” behavior from a person tells us less about a them than “unusual” behavior. iii. Commonsense attributions – 1. Attributions are often rational. 2. 3 Factors influence whether we attribute someone’s behavior to internal or external causes: a. Consistency – How consistent is this behavior? b. Distinctiveness – Does this behavior occur in other situations? c. Consensus – D other people exhibit this behavior? b. The Fundamental Attribution Error – the tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon other’s behavior (also called correspondence bias). c. How do we make the attribution error? i. Perspective and situational awareness 1. An actor-observer difference – we observe others from a different perspective than we observe ourselves. a. When we act, environment commands our attention. b. When we observe others, the person occupies the center of our attention and the environment becomes relatively invisible. 2. The camera perspective bias – Depending n where the camera is facing, we will view a confession as being genuine (if on confessor) or coerced (if on the officer) 3. Perspectives change with time – As a situation fades into memory, the person seems to be more and more driven by situational influences. Same principle applies to predicting future behaviors.
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