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chapter_12_helping - Chapter 12 Helping By Jason Clark I...

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Chapter 12 Helping By: Jason Clark I. Altruism: A motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self-interest II. Why do we help? A. Gaining rewards, avoiding punishment 1. Social-exchange theory: the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one's rewards and minimize one's costs 2. Egoism: a motive (supposedly underlying all behavior) to increase one's own welfare a. the opposite of altruism, which aims to increase another's welfare 3. Internal rewards a. we try to reduce private guilt and maintain (or reclaim in some cases) public image 4. Social norms a. Reciprocity norm: an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them b. Social-responsibility norm: an expectation that people will help those dependent on them B. Evolutionary psychology 1. Kin selection: the idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one's close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes 2. Reciprocity-genetic self interest also predicts reciprocity
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