Cooperative Learning Article- Psych

Cooperative Learning Article- Psych - Cooperative...

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Cooperative Classrooms, Cooperative Schools David W. Johnson and Roger T. Johnson ft is essentially the experience, the means, that fits human beings not - to their external environment so much as to one another. Without the , cooperation of its members society cannot survive, and the society of man has survived because the cooperativeness of its members made survival possible it was not an advantageous individual here and there who did so. but the group. In human societies the individuals who are most likely to survive are those who are best enabled to do so by their group, Ashley Montagu, 1965 What Is Cooperative Learning? I want to be able to hear a pin drop in this room." "Don't copy." "I want to see what you can do, not your neighbor." "Save the talking for the hallway." These are familiar teacher statements exhorting students to work by themselves without interacting with their classmates. In many classrooms, however, these statements arc becoming passe. From Maine to Hawaii, from Alaska to Florida, schools are rediscovering the power of having students work together, cooperatively, to learn. This rising interest in cooperative learning, furthermore, is not unique to the United States. Throughout Canada and Europe, and in numerous countries in Central and South America, Africa, and Asia, teachers and administrators have been trained in cooperative learning procedures. At both the classroom via cooperative learning and at the school and district level via colleagial support groups we are returning to the North American tradition of cooperation. "What is cooperative learning?" Cooperation is working together to accomplish shared goals and cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize .their own and each other's learning. 1 Johnson and Johnson Within cooperative learning groups students are given two responsibilities: to learn the
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assigned material and make sure that all other members of their group do likewise. Thus, a student seeks an outcome that is beneficial to him- or herself and beneficial to all other group members. In cooperative learning situations, students perceive that they can reach their learning goals only if the other students in the learning group also do so. Students discuss the material to be learned with each other, help and assist each other to understand it, and encourage each other to work hard. Cooperative learning may be contrasted with competitive and individualistic learning. In the competitive classroom, students work against each other to achieve a goal that only one or a few students can attain. Students are graded on a curve, which requires them to work faster and more accurately than their peers. Thus, students seek an outcome that is personally beneficial but detrimental to all other students in the class. In the individualistic classroom students work by themselves to accomplish learning goals unrelated to those of the other students. Individual goals are assigned, students’ efforts are evaluated on a fixed set
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Cooperative Learning Article- Psych - Cooperative...

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