Chapter2Narrative - Chapter 2: "Mind Design" Narrative This...

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Chapter 2: “Mind Design” Narrative This chapter explores the development and mechanics of intelligence and its relationship to artificial intelligence through a discussion of theories regarding how mental processes lead to behavior and a consideration of evolution. First the authors provide a background for understanding the different theories of cognition by presenting three different approaches to the study of cognitive processes, including Marr’s “Levels of computation,” Smolensky’s “Conscious and Intuitive Processes,” and Dennett’s “Explanatory Stances.” Next, two models of cognition are discussed, including the “Symbol-System Hypothesis” and “Connectionism.” The main tenants of the symbol-system view are presented, including functionalism, representation and search, and a consideration of intuition. A critique of the symbol-system hypothesis is then presented, followed by an explanation of connectionism. Next a model combining tenants of both is considered. Finally, theories of evolution, including Darwinian natural selection, the concept of fitness, and the evolution of humans, with emphasis on intelligence and language, are presented. The first three theories discussed each offer different explanations for the fundamental processes behind intelligent behavior. First, using an artificial intelligence metaphor, Marr proposed that there are three hierarchically arranged levels of intelligence or “levels of computation.” These include: (1) Cognitive Level: specify what you want to do; (2) Algorithm Level : specify the steps involved in accomplishing the task; and, (3) Implementation Level: specifies how the task is to be carried out. The symbol-system hypothesis and connectionism take different stances on Marr’s theory in terms of the point when it becomes important to determine the “device” (brain vs. a computer or calculator) that will be used to carry out the task. The symbol-system hypothesis contends that this does not become important until the implementation level because the rules would be the same regardless of the device. Connectionism holds that the nature of the machine can restrict what can be done and how, so that specifying the device is important at all levels. Additionally, connectionism questions the need for the algorithm level when task become “intuitive”, whereas the symbol-system hypothesis agrees with the necessity of the steps/program regardless of the task. Second, Smolensky’s theory of conscious and intuitive processors is presented. Consciously-processed behavior is thought-through step-by-step whereas intuitively processed behavior is more automatic. Smolensky also makes the more subtle distinction between “rule- governed behavior” (behavior that is in accordance with a higher principle) and “rule-following behavior” (behavior that involves directly following a series of steps). The symbol-system hypothesis suggests both conscious and intuitive processes are rule-governing and rule-
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYC 410 taught by Professor Martinvanslyck during the Spring '05 term at VCU.

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Chapter2Narrative - Chapter 2: "Mind Design" Narrative This...

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