CHAPTER2outline

CHAPTER2outline - 1 CHAPTER 2: MIND DESIGN This chapter...

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CHAPTER 2: MIND DESIGN This chapter focuses on the biological basis of learning and cognition. Cognitive science: underlying belief that there are similarities between the computer and brain. I. Designing Minds: The Architecture of Cognition 2 architectures of cognition: symbol-system hypothesis and connectionism (explained further below). A. Levels of Computation Marr (1982): intelligent action takes place at three levels: a) The cognitive level specifies the task the AI system is to perform. b) The algorithm level specifies the computer programming that effects the task. c) The implementation level specifies how the hardware device is to carry out the program instructions. B. The Conscious and Intuitive Processors Smolensky (1988): examines how thoughtful processes become intuitive actions. a) conscious processor: engaged when we consciously think about a problem. As a skill is mastered, the thought process becomes more intuitive. b) intuitive processor: innate and learned abilities. These abilities can be learned without ever becoming conscious. o The issue separating symbol-system and connectionism concerns when and whether human behavior is rule following (rather than rule governing). The symbol-system view argues that both the conscious and intuitive processor are rule-following and rule- governing, whereas the connectionists hold that human behavior is rule following only at the conscious level. o According to the symbol-system view: the intuitive processor carries out step-by-step unconscious thinking. o According to the connectionism: the intuitive processor carries out nonsymbolic parallel processing similar to the neural parallel processing of the brain. C. Explanatory Stances 1
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Dennett (1989): intelligent behavior can be explained by taking any of 3 mutually exclusive stances. 1) Design stance: - specifies what a given device or process is for, specifying the function it serves (e.g., heart circulates blood). 2) Hardware stance: - specifies the actual physical process that carries out the design function (e.g., artificial heart could fill the same function as an organic heart). 3) Intentional stance: - we attribute to a device or person beliefs and desires, treating them as rational agents making choices based on their knowledge and motives (e.g., belief that in suggesting the artificial heart, the doctor wants me to choose the best medical option so that I am healthy). These stances highlight that there are compatible ways of explaining the same things. II. Two Architectures of Cognition - Cognitive psychologists construct their theories by making inferences about mental processes from behavior. - symbol-system models are helpful for explaining cognitive processes that involve consciousness, such as problem solving and language. -
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CHAPTER2outline - 1 CHAPTER 2: MIND DESIGN This chapter...

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