Ch 9 Qustions 4 5 6

Ch 9 Qustions 4 5 6 - reasoning not being correct....

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4. Explain the role confirmation bias may play in the courtroom following opening statements. (p 261) Suppose you are on the jury in a court case. Because you are human, after the opening statements, you will already have an initial judgment. Confirmation bias says that most likely you pay more attention to those things presented in the case supporting your initial judgment and more easily discard those things that refute your judgment. This puts a dangerous importance on opening arguments, making them sometimes more important than the evidence itself. 5. Why is deductive reasoning preferred over inductive reasoning as far as certainty and proof are concerned? (p 262) Deductive reasoning is preferred over inductive reasoning because it works within preset parameters such as “if . . . then” statements. This lowers the probability of one’s
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Unformatted text preview: reasoning not being correct. Inductive reasoning has no preset parameters, only the natural parameters of the knowledge or experience known before problem solving. This forces the assumption that all is known and experienced to correctly solve the problem, when that really cannot be guaranteed without the set limits that deductive reasoning works within. 6. What are some of the critiques of the heuristic approach? The heuristics research has frequently been criticized for taking a purely descriptive, atheoretical approach to studying decisions and for implicitly defining decision making by what it is not. Also, it seems that the trend within heuristics literature is that the effects are often highly specific to the particular task in which they were originally obtained....
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