Chapter16.notes

Chapter16.notes - Chapter 16 Person Perception: Forming...

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Chapter 16 Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Others People tend to ascribe desirable personality traits to those who are good looking when there is little correlation in reality People are quick to draw conclusions about an individual’s personality based on nonverbal behavior or expressiveness We often categorize people using social schemas, a sort of social organization. This often leads to the creation of stereotypes Person perception very subjective; ambiguous behavior interpreted as consistent with expectations; people frequently see what they expect to see and then overestimate their observations “spotlight effect” demonstrates how we frequently believe out actions/appearances are more noticeable/memorable that they really are person perception might be an effect of evolution—e.g. physical attractiveness desirable because it is associated with reproductive potential for women and health/accumulation of resources for men Attribution Processes: Explaining Behavior Heider first to assert that people tend to locate the cause of behavior either within a person, attributing it to personal factors, or outside a person, attributing it to environmental factors Can affect person perception (e.g. if you believe a business failure is your friend’s fault instead of the economy’s) Weiner also says that people also focus on the stability of the causes underlying behavior, creating four different types of attribution: internal-stable, internal- unstable, external-stable, external-unstable Actors favor external attributions for their behavior, whereas observers are more likely to explain the same behavior with internal attributions (when dealing with failure, socially undesirable behavior; with successes, this is reversed) Attributions can be defensive, self-serving Close Relationships: Liking and Loving Key determinant in initial stages of a relationship is physical attractiveness (for both sexes); people may consider seeking someone of their own level of attractiveness “birds of a feather flock together”—most couples tend to be similar in age, race, religion, social class, education, intelligence, physical attractiveness, values, and attitudes; similarity in personality modest at best Byrne asserts that similarity causes attraction (others also assert that attraction fosters similarity through “attitude alignment”) Reciprocating attraction—we like others who like us, and we see others as liking us more when we like them Romance involves an individual’s ideals about their partner; people routinely evaluate how close their intimate partners come to matching these ideal
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Chapter16.notes - Chapter 16 Person Perception: Forming...

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