Chapter 12summ

Chapter 12summ - Chapter 12 The Nature of Personality o The...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 12 - The Nature of Personality o The concept of personality explains the consistency in peoples  behavior over time and situations while also explaining their  distinctiveness o Factor analysis can be used to identify higher-order traits from  which specific traits are derived  o Considerable debate as to how many trait dimensions are  necessary to account for the variation in personality but the Big 5  model has become the dominant conception of personality  structure o Big 5- extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience,  agreeableness and conscientious  - Psychodynamic Perspectives o Psychodynamic approaches include all theories derived from  Freud’s insights  o Freud’s psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the importance of the  unconscious  o Freud described personality structure in terms of three  components- id, ego, and superego – routinely involved in an  ongoing series of internal conflicts  o Theorized that conflicts centering on sex and aggression are  especially likely to lead to anxiety o Described three levels of awareness- the conscious, the  preconscious, and the unconscious o His theory emphasized the importance of unconscious processes o Anxiety and other unpleasant emotions are often warded off with  defense mechanisms o First five years of life- extremely influential in shaping adult  personality  o Series of psychosexual stages- oral, anal, phallic, latency and  genital  Certain experiences during these stages can have lasting  effects on adult personality  Resolution to the Oedipal complex is thought to be  particularly critical to healthy development
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
o Jung’s most innovative concept was the collective unconscious- a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from peoples ancestral past o Archetypes are emotionally charged images that have universal meaning o Jung also provided first description of introversion and extroversion o Adler’s individual psychology emphasizes how people strive for superiority to compensate for their feelings of inferiority – explained personality disturbances in terms of overcompensation and inferiority complexes o Overall- psychodynamic theories have produced many groundbreaking insights about the unconscious, the role of internal conflict, and the importance of early childhood in personality development o Psychodynamic Theories have been criticized for their poor testability, their inadequate base of empirical evidence and their male-centered views - Behavioral Perspectives o Behavioral theories view personality as a collection of response tendencies tied to specific stimulus situations o They assume that personality development is lifelong in which response tendencies are shaped and re shaped by learning, especially operant conditioning o Behavioral theories explain how personality is shaped through
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 7

Chapter 12summ - Chapter 12 The Nature of Personality o The...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online