Chapter 12summ

Chapter 12summ - Chapter 12 - The Nature of Personality o...

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Chapter 12 - The Nature of Personality o The concept of personality explains the consistency in peoples  behavior over time and situations while also explaining their  distinctiveness o Factor analysis can be used to identify higher-order traits from  which specific traits are derived  o Considerable debate as to how many trait dimensions are  necessary to account for the variation in personality but the Big 5  model has become the dominant conception of personality  structure o Big 5- extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience,  agreeableness and conscientious  - Psychodynamic Perspectives o Psychodynamic approaches include all theories derived from  Freud’s insights  o Freud’s psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the importance of the  unconscious  o Freud described personality structure in terms of three  components- id, ego, and superego – routinely involved in an  ongoing series of internal conflicts  o Theorized that conflicts centering on sex and aggression are  especially likely to lead to anxiety o Described three levels of awareness- the conscious, the  preconscious, and the unconscious o His theory emphasized the importance of unconscious processes o Anxiety and other unpleasant emotions are often warded off with  defense mechanisms o First five years of life- extremely influential in shaping adult  personality  o Series of psychosexual stages- oral, anal, phallic, latency and  genital  Certain experiences during these stages can have lasting  effects on adult personality  Resolution to the Oedipal complex is thought to be  particularly critical to healthy development
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o Jung’s most innovative concept was the collective unconscious- a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from peoples ancestral past o Archetypes are emotionally charged images that have universal meaning o Jung also provided first description of introversion and extroversion o Adler’s individual psychology emphasizes how people strive for superiority to compensate for their feelings of inferiority – explained personality disturbances in terms of overcompensation and inferiority complexes o Overall- psychodynamic theories have produced many groundbreaking insights about the unconscious, the role of internal conflict, and the importance of early childhood in personality development o Psychodynamic Theories have been criticized for their poor testability, their inadequate base of empirical evidence and their male-centered views - Behavioral Perspectives o Behavioral theories view personality as a collection of response tendencies tied to specific stimulus situations o They assume that personality development is lifelong in which response tendencies are shaped and re shaped by learning, especially operant conditioning o Behavioral theories explain how personality is shaped through
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Chapter 12summ - Chapter 12 - The Nature of Personality o...

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