Study Packet 14 sec.3 - Study Packet 14 Postwar America...

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Study Packet 14: Postwar America Section 3 : The Civil Rights Movement Terms: 1. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) The Supreme Court declared segregation to be legal with the Plessy v Ferguson case. It established the “separate-but-equal” doctrine. The permission given to segregation laws segregating African American required equal public facilities were provided to them. In 1955 challenges arose against this system. 2. De facto segregation Areas that didn’t have laws requiring segregation often had de facto segregation; segregation by customs and tradition. 3. NAACP ( National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ) - (1909) This association had supported court cases trying to bring down segregation. Some victories the NAACP accomplished were the Norris v. Alabama and Morgan v. Virginia cases. In Norris v. Alabama case the Supreme Court ruled that the exclusion of African Americans in Alabama from juries violated their right to equal protection under the law. In Morgan v. Virginia the Court ruled that segregation in interstate buses was unconstitutional. In Sweatt v. Painter ruled that qualified African Americans had the right to be admitted to state law schools even if parallel black laws existed. 4. CORE ( Congress of Racial Equality ) – (1942, Chicago) Who: James Farmer and George Houser. They started to use a form of protest first used by union workers in the 1930s, they were called sit-ins. These sit-ins were used in an attempt to desegregate restaurants that denied service to African Americans. Using the strategy, CORE members went in segregated restaurants and if they were denied service they would sit down and refused to leave. Thanks to these protests many restaurants, theaters, and other public facilities in Chicago, Detroit, Denver, and Syracuse were desegregated. 5. Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Linda Brown was denied admission to her neighborhood school in Topeka, Kansas because she was black so then she was told to attend an all black school across town. The Supreme unanimously ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional and violated the equal right protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. 6. Southern Manifesto
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The Southern Manifesto was a document written in February-March 1956 by legislators in the United States Congress opposed to racial integration in public places. [1] The manifesto was signed by 101 politicians from Alabama , Arkansas , Florida , Georgia , Louisiana , Mississippi , North Carolina , South Carolina , Tennessee , Texas , and Virginia . [1] The document was largely drawn up to counter the landmark Supreme Court 1954 ruling Brown v. Board of Education , which integrated public schools. 7. Montgomery Bus Boycott On December 1, 1955, Parks tiredly refused to give up her seat to a white man.
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