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Uploadlecture2 - How we perceive others Thursday January 10 Main points of today's lecture What is social psychology Attribution Theory Fundamental

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Unformatted text preview: How we perceive others Thursday, January 10 Main points of today's lecture: What is social psychology Attribution Theory Fundamental Attribution Error Selffulfilling prophecy Person x Situation Matrix S P People P P P Situations S S S Person x Situation Matrix Situations Class Jane Party Game Dentist People Sam Person x Situation Matrix Situations Class Jane Party Game Dentist Listens (asks Q's) Listens (quietly) Listens (impatiently) People Sam Listens (Asks Q's ) Person x Situation Matrix Situations Class Jane Party Lamp shade Sits in corner Bouncer (keeps bad guys out) Game Dentist People Listens (asks Q's) Listens (quietly) Listens (impatiently) Sam Listens (Asks Q's ) Drinks (too much & wears too little) Person x Situation Matrix Situations Class Jane Party Lamp shade Sits in corner Bouncer (keeps bad guys out) Game Yells (loudly) Yells (quietly) Yells (ref is helping terrorists) Dentist People Listens (asks Q's) Listens (quietly) Listens (impatiently) Sam Listens (Asks Q's ) Drinks (too much & wears too little) Yells (for more beer) Person x Situation Matrix Situations Class Jane Party Lamp shade Sits in corner Bouncer (keeps bad guys out) Game Yells (loudly) Yells (quietly) Yells (ref is helping terrorists) Dentist Affiliates (a lot) Affiliates (quietly) Affiliates (Want to go hunting?) People Listens (asks Q's) Listens (quietly) Listens (impatiently) Sam Listens (Asks Q's ) Drinks (too much & wears too little) Yells (for more beer) Affiliates (Want to get married? Person x Situation Matrix Situations Class Jane Party Lamp shade Sits in corner Bouncer (keeps bad guys out) Game Yells (loudly) Yells (quietly) Yells (ref is helping terrorists) Dentist Affiliates (a lot) Affiliates (quietly) Affiliates (Want to go hunting?) Social Psychology is interested in the COLUMNS i.e., how situations lead people to respond similarly to one another People Listens (asks Q's) Listens (quietly) Listens (impatiently) Sam Listens (Asks Q's ) Drinks (too much & wears too little) Yells (for more beer) Affiliates (Want to get married? Person x Situation Matrix Situations Class Jane Party Lamp shade Sits in corner Bouncer (keeps bad guys out) Game Yells (loudly) Yells (quietly) Yells (ref is helping terrorists) Dentist Affiliates (a lot) Affiliates (quietly) Affiliates (Want to go hunting?) ________ ________ is interested in the ROWS i.e., how people respond differently than others, but consistently across situations People Listens (asks Q's) Listens (quietly) Listens (impatiently) Sam Listens (Asks Q's ) Drinks (too much & wears too little) Yells (for more beer) Affiliates (Want to get married? Person x Situation Matrix Situations Class Jane Party Lamp shade Sits in corner Bouncer (keeps bad guys out) _________ __________ Dentist Affiliates (a lot) Affiliates (quietly) Affiliates (Want to go hunting?) Game Yells (loudly) Yells (quietly) Yells (ref is helping terrorists) People Listens (asks Q's) Listens (quietly) Listens (impatiently) Sam Listens (Asks Q's ) Drinks (too much & wears too little) Yells (for more beer) Affiliates (Want to get married? is interested in particular ROWS i.e., how people respond VERY differently from others, & in potentially harmful ways (to self or others) Social Psychology scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another, and how others affect us You notice that your European-American friends talk about their feelings more often than your Asian-American friends. You want to study this. This study would fall under: A. Abnormal Psychology B. Social Psychology C. Personality Psychology D. Cognitive psychology Attribution Theory: Answering the "why" question Everyone is an Amatuer Scientist (Fritz Heider) Internal (personal causality) External (impersonal causality) The Covariation Model Kelley (1967) extended metaphor people use statistical logic in attribution See if behavior covaries with person or with situation Use 3 kinds of information: distinctiveness is person's behavior unique to this situation? consensus is behavior unique to this person, or are other people acting similarly? consistency is behavior consistent over time? Does the person always act this way in this situation? Example: Student turns in papers late What does the professor think? A: student is irresponsible B: student is dealing with a sick family member C: student doesn't care about school D: student was with a friend who needed her help Social Thinking How we explain someone's behavior affects how we react to it Situational attribution "Maybe that driver is ill." Tolerant reaction (proceed cautiously, allow driver a wide berth) Negative behavior Dispositional attribution "Crazy driver!" Unfavorable reaction (speed up and race past the other driver, give a dirty look) Fundamental Attribution Error Lee Ross: internal attributions more likely SO _____________ Trivia Quiz Study Ross, Amabile, & Steinmetz (1977) Subjects randomly assigned to be questioner, contestant, or observer in quiz game Questioner writes 10 difficult trivia questions Contestant tries to answer them & invariably does poorly After game everyone rates general intelligence of questioner & contestant 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Observer's Ratings Contestant's Ratings Questioner Contestant General Intelligence of Average Student Actor/Observer Difference Steve Bob (Actor) Joe (Observer) Actor/Observer Difference Steve Bob (Actor) Bob hits Steve. Why? Joe (Observer) Actor/Observer Bias OBSERVER> Internal attribution ACTOR> External attribution For OBSERVER: The Actor What is salient in the perceptual field? For ACTOR: Everything but the actor (i.e., the situation) Perceptual Salience The information that is the focus of people's attention helps explain why the fundamental attribution error is prevalent. Spotlight Effect The spotlight effect occurs when people overestimate the extent to which their behaviors and appearance are noticed by others. This indicates that people are aware of others' tendencies to commit the fundamental attribution error. One reason psychologists believe the fundamental attribution error occurs is: A. Actor/Observer Bias B. Spotlight effect D. Consensus C. Perceptual Salience E. Covariation model Attributions are Important Changes the way other's behavior is perceived/interpreted Affects the way we interpret our own Ability does her test behavior reflect intelligence or luck? Aggression was that person's rude behavior reflective of disposition or just bad mood? behavior Depression and "explanatory style" Self-Fullfilling Prophecy False belief (Expectation) New reality created Actions, based on that belief Robert Rosenthal--Expectancy Effects Experimenter effects Rats Pygmalian in the classroom Feeling attractive Based on expectancy effects, what advice would you give someone when picking friends..partners..and work associates? Main points of today's lecture: What is social psychology Attribution Theory Fundamental Attribution Error Selffulfilling prophecy Key words Social Psychology Attribution Theory The Covariation Model Fundamental Attribution Error Actor/Observer Bias Perceptual Salience Spotlight Effect Selffulfilling Prophecy Expectancy Effects ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYC 9C taught by Professor Dontremember during the Spring '08 term at UC Irvine.

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