TYPOLOGIESofCrime (Repaired).docx - TYPOLOGIES AND MEASURES...

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TYPOLOGIES AND MEASURES OF CRIME Typologies are constructed on bases of the extent, the measurement, and the trends in crime. They do not try to produce theories as much as they try to be useful in terms of preventing and controlling crime. Some call this "applied criminology" (Helfgott 2008), but it is more commonly known as the study of criminal behavior (at least that's how colleges distinguish a lower level typologies course from a usually-upper-level criminology course). Typologies have many criticisms mostly because the criteria used for evaluating them is different from those used to evaluate theories. However, typology criteria make up the strongest arguments for using them, and are: (1) the focus is on individual behavior that is at odds with the law; no crime without law; (2) criminal behavior cannot be predicted as theories strive for; it can only be explained; (3) there is no single answer or explanation for crime; only by unlocking the intersections of events and decisions will work; (4) the most powerful correlates of crime are "type"-like categories such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, and mental disorder; (5) more than 50% of the crime "out there" never gets reported to police, so both theory and typology are working in the dark; and (6) the argument that typologies are not scientific is false because there are hard criteria by which they can be evaluated, which are: (a) homogeneity/heterogeneity; (b) exhaustiveness/exclusiveness; and (c) simplicity/complexity. I. VIOLENT CRIME A. Murder - 1st degree; 2nd degree; Manslaughter; Justifiable; Other 1. Serial Murderers - 4 types: Missionary; Hedonistic; Power&Control; Visionary 2. Mass Murderers - 5: Disgruntled; Annihilator; Disciple; Pseudocommando; Set&Run B. Assault - Simple; Aggravated; Vehicular; Spousal; Child; Elder; Kidnapping C. Sexual Assault - Sodomy; Rape - 4 types: Anger; Power; Sadistic: Gratification 1. Acquaintance Rape - Incest; Pedophile; Date Rape 2. Stranger Rape - Pedophile; Aggressive; Psychotic 3. Female Rapist - Co-offender; Teacher/Lover; Nurturer 4. Internet Offender - Impulsive/Curious; Porn Trader; Downloader 5. Crossover Types - Specialists; Generalists D. Workplace Violence - Robber; Ideologist; Customer/Client; Worker/Worker E. School Violence - Bullying; Teacher/Student; Teacher/Teacher F. Robbery - Professional; Opportunistic; Addict; Amateur II. PROPERTY CRIME A. Occasional
1. Shoplifting - Booster; Snitch; Klepto; Addict; Juvenile; Vagrant 2. Vandalism - Wanton; Predatory; Vindictive 3. Motor Vehicle Theft - Professional; Cloner; Parts chopper 4. Check Fraud - Naïve; Systematic; Paper Hanger B. Conventional 1. Burglary - Professional; Known; Young; Junkie 2. Fencing - Master; Neighborhood; Outlet; Lay 3. Larceny/Theft - Petty; Grand; Identity 4. Arson - Profit; Revenge; Vandal; Concealment; Sabotage; Pyro C. Professional 1. Scams - Badgers; Grifters 2. Cons - Short con; Big con; Religious con 3. Specialists - Snake Oil; Three Card Monte III. WHITE-COLLAR CRIME - 25 Different Types of Fraud & Swindling A. Occupational (crime by employees) - B. Corporate (crime by organizations) IV. POLITICAL CRIME A. By Government 1. Human Rights Violation 2. Crimes by Police 3. Illegal Surveillance

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