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Unformatted text preview: CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 READING – TEST 1 – ANSWERS
CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 – TEST 1 – PASSAGE 1
Key: D E G
A . It avoided all “scholarly” words
Keywords : avoided, scholarly words
In paragraph 2, „scholarly words‟ are mentioned in relation to Cawdray‟s dictionary of 1604.
In paragraph 6, we are told that Johnson „had to draw on the best of all previous dictionaries. These
obviously included Cawdray’s dictionary, which “tended to concentrate on scholarly words”, so it is
unlikely that Johnson‟s dictionary would not contain any scholarly words.
=> ANSWER: FALSE
1. It was the only English dictionary in general use for 200 years
Keywords: only, in general use, 200 years
At the end of paragraph 6, the writer says that “After its publication, the Dictionary was not seriously
rivalled for over a century”. This means that Johnson‟s dictionary was the only one that most people
used for over 100 years [not 200 years]. We do not know if it was the only dictionary that most people
used for 200 years.
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
1. It was famous because because of the large number of people involved
Keywords: famous, large number , people involved
In the last sentence of paragraph 5, the writer says: “He was also helped by six assistants, two of whom
died whilst the Dictionary was still in preparation”. Six is not “a large number” The reasons why the
Dictionary was famous are referred to in paragraph 8: it was “the cornerstone of Standard English”.
=> ANSWER: FALSE
1. It focused mainly on language from contemporary texts
Key words : mainly, language, contemporary texts
In paragraph 6 , the writer states: “The work was immense…, Johnson wrote the definition of over
40,000 words, and illustrated their many meanings with some 14,000 quotations drawn from English
writing on every subject, from the Elizabethans to his own time.‟ contemporary = belonging to the same
period of time/ current = to his own time
=> ANSWER: TRUE
1|P age 1. There was a time limit for its completion
Keywords: time limit, completion
In paragraph 6, the writer says that Johnson was ” Working to a deadline…..”
– time limit=deadline
=> ANSWER: TRUE
1. It ignored work done by previous dictionaries writers
Keywords: ignored, work, previous writers
In paragraph 6, the writer explains : “he had to draw on the best of all previous dictionaries, and to
make his work one of heroic synthesis”, and ” He adopted his definitions on the principle of English
common law – according to precedent” Precedent: something that may serve as an example or
justification for subsequent situations.
=> ANSWER: FALSE 1. It took into account subtleties of meaning
In paragraph 6, the writer says: ” Johnson treated English very practically, as a living language, with
many different shades of meaning.” So it can be inferred that Johnson must have taken into account
subtleties of meaning in order to deal with many different shades, or small differences, of
meaning. Subtlety (subtleties) : a fine distinction or the ability to make such a distinction
=> ANSWER: TRUE
1. Its definitions were famous for their originality
In paragraph 6, the writer states: “He did not expect to achieve complete originality”
=> ANSWER: FALSE 1. Having rented the garret, he took on a number of …, who stood at a long central desk.
Keywords: garret, a number of, stood, long central desk
In paragraph 5, the first sentence, the writer says: “James Boswell, his biographer, describes the garret
where Johnson worked as fitted up like a counting house” with a long desk running down the middle at
which the copy clerks would work standing up.”
– central=running down the middle – stood=standing up => ANSWER: clerks/copy clerks 1. Johnson did not have a … available to him, but eventually produced definitions of in excess of
Keywords: definitions, 40,000 words
2|P age In paragraph 6, the writer states that: (….and without a library to hand), Johnson wrote the definitions
of over 40,000 words….
– in excess of=over
=> ANSWER: library 1. Acording to his biographer, James Boswell, Johnson‟s principal achievement was to bring… to
the English language.
Keywords: James Boswell, principal achievement, English language
In paragraph 8, the writer says: ” It is the cornerstone of Standard English, an achievement which, in
James Boswell‟s words, “conferred stability on the language of his country”
=> ANSWER: stability 1. As a reward for his hard work, he was granted a … by the king.
Keywords : reward, his hard work, the king
In the last paragraph, the writer says: ” The Dictionary, together with his other writing, made Johnson
famous and so well esteemed that his friends were able to prevail upon King George III to offer him a
– prevail upon= have influence in= persuade => ANSWER: pension Questions 8-13
1. The growing importance of the middle classes led to an increased demand for dictionaries.
Keywords: growing importance, middle classes, increased demand
In paragraph 3, the first sentence, the writer explains : “… the rise of dictionaries is associated with the
rise of the English middle class….
Associated with =closely related toð
=> ANSWER: TRUE 1. Johnson has become more well known since his death.
Keywords: more ,well known, his death
In the last paragraph, the writer says: ” The Dictionary…made Johnson famous and so well esteemed
that his friends were able to prevail upon King George III to offer him a pension. From then on, he was to
become the Johnson of folklore.” The last paragraph tells us that Johnson became very famous after he
finished the Dictionary and even the King gave Johnson money for the rest of his life [=a pension]. As a
result of his fame during his lifetime, Johnson remained famous after his death and people continued to
talk about his work [„the Johnson of folklore‟].
3|P age – well known=famous => ANSWER: FALSE 1. Johnson had been planning to write a dictionary for several years.
Keywords: Johnson, planning, a dictionary, several years
In paragraph 4, we are simply told that: “Johnson decided that he did not need an academy to settle
arguments about language; he would write a dictionary himself….” There is no mention of how many
years Johnson had been planning this task.
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN 1. Johnson set up an academy to help with the writing of his dictionary.
Keywords: academy, help with the writing,, its completion
In paragraph 4, the writer states : ” Johnson decided he did not need an academy to settle arguments
about language: he woud write a dictionary himself; and he would do it single-handed.”
=> ANSWER: FALSE 1. Johnson only receieved payment for his dictionary on its completion.
Keywords: payment, completion
Paragraph 4 continues: ” He was to be paid $1575 in instalments, and from this he took money to rent
17 Gough Square, in which he set up his dictionary workshop”. So, Johnson received regular payments
in order for him to continue working on the dictionary. Instalment: a partial portion of money to be paid
over designated period of time, ex: a month, a year.
=> ANSWER: FALSE 1. Not all of the assistants survived to see the publication of the Dictionary.
Key words : Not all, assistants, survived, publication
In the last sentence of paragraph 5, the writer says: ” He was also helped by six assistants, two of whom
died whilst the Dictionary was still in preparation”.
=> ANSWER: TRUE CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 – TEST 1 – PASSAGE 2
Which paragraph contains the following information:
1. a biological explanation of the teacher-subjects‟ behaviour
Keywords: biological, teacher-subjects 4|P age In paragraph F, the first sentence, the writer states: ” One‟s first inclination might be to argue that there
must be some sort of built-in animal aggression instinct that was activated by the experiment, and that
Milgram‟s teacher-subjects were just following a genetic need …..”
– might be to argue = to explain – animal instinct, genetic need = biological factors => ANSWER: F 1. The explanation Milgram gave the teacher-subjects for the experiment
Keywords: explanation, teacher-subjects, experiment
In paragraph A, the writer says: ” Specifically, Milgram told each volunteer „teacher-subject‟ that the
experiment was in the noble cause of education, and was designed to test whether or not punishing
pupils for their mistakes would have a positive effect on the pupils‟ ability to learn.” So, Milgram told
the volunteer „teacher-subjects‟ what the experiment was designed to test = he explained the purpose
of the experiment.
=> ANSWER: A 1. The identity of the pupils
Keywords: identity, pupils
In paragraph B, line 6, the writer says : ” The supposed pupil was in reality an actor hired by Milgram to
simulate receiving the shocks….”
identity=information about who the pupils were [actors]ð
=> ANSWER: B 1. The expected statistical outcome
Keywords: expected, outcome
In paragraph D, the writer says : ” Prior to carrying out the experiment, Milgram explained his idea to a
group of 39 psychiatrists and asked them to predict the average percentageof people who would be
willing to administer the highest shock level…. The overwhelming consensus was that virtually all the
teacher-subjects would refuse to obey the experimenter”
Thus, the predicted/expected result or outcome was that almost all the teacher-subjects would refuse
=> ANSWER: D 1. The general aim of sociobiological study
Keywords : general aim, sociobiological 5|P age In paragraph I, the writer explains: ” This, in essence, is the problem of modern sociobiology – to
discover the degree to which…genetic programming dictates…the interaction of animals and humans
with their environment, that is, their behaviour.”
– in essence = essentially – aim=problem Sociobiology, therefore, aims to find the answer to this question.
=> ANSWER: I 1. The way Milgram persuaded the teacher-subjects to continue
Keywords : way, persuaded, continue
In paragraph C, line 7, the writer says : ” If the subject was reluctant to proceed, Milgram said that it was
important for the sake of experiment that the procedure be followed through to the end.”
– to proceed= to continue => ANSWER: C Questions 20-22
1. The teacher-subjects were told that they were testing whether…
Keywords: teacher-subjects, told testing
In paragraph A, the last sentence, the writer says: “Specifically, Milgram told each volunteer ” teachersubject” that the experiment was in the noble cause of education, and was designed to test whether or
not punishing pupils for their mistakes would have a positive effect on the pupils‟ ability to learn”.
– help =have a positive effect on
=> ANSWER: B. punishment helps learning 1. The teacher-subjects were instructed to…
Keywords : teacher-subjects, instructed
In paragraph B, the writer refers to the instructions given to the teacher-subjects in the experiment:
“The teacher-subject was told that whenever the pupil gave the wrong answerto a question, a shock
was to be administered, beginning at the lowest level and increasing in severity with each successive
wrong answer.” ” Milgram told the teacher subjects to ignore the reaction,… and to administer
whatever level of shock was called for, as per the rule governing the experimental situation of the
– instructed=told – give=administer => ANSWER:
6|P age D. give punishment according to a rule 1. Before the experiment took place the psychiatrists…
Keywords: before, psychiatrists
In paragraph D,the writer says: “Prior to carying out the experiment, Milgram explained his idea to a
group of 39 psychiatrists…” and ” the overwhelming consensus was that virtually all the teachersubjects would refuse to obey the experimenter”, and that” most subjects would not go beyond 150
volts , and only “about one in 1000 would give the highest shock of 450 volts”
In paragraph E, the actual result is: ” over 60 percent of the teacher-subjects continued to obey Milgram
up to the 450 volts limit”.
So, the estimate of the psychiatrists was too low – they underestimated how many teacher-subjects
would continue to follow the rules/the procedure.
– before=prior to
– comply with=obey
procedure. C. underestimated the teacher-subjects‟ willingness to comply with experimental Questions 23-26
1. Several of the subjects were psychology students at Yale University.
Keywords: subjects, psychology students, Yale University
In paragraph A, the first sentence, the writer says: “A few years ago,…, Stanley Milgram from Yale
University tested 40 subjects from all walks of life for …to perform.” From all walks of life : from
different types of jobs and different levels of society. We are not told if any of these were students or if they were – from what university.
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN 1. Some people may believe that the teacher-subjects‟ behaviour could be explained as a positive
Keywords: behaviour, positive survival mechanism
In paragraph F, the writer explains that: “A modern hard-core sociobiologist might even go so far as to
claim that this aggressive instinct evolved as an advantageous trait, having been of survival value to our
ancestors in their struggle against the hardship of life…” This means the teacher-subjects‟ behaviour
evolved as an advantage in helping our ancestors survive. So it is a “positive survival mechanism”
– advantageous trait = positive or useful characteristic that can produce a particular behaviour
– mechanism =a way of doing something planned
=> ANSWER: TRUE 1. In sociological explanation, personal values are more powerful than authority 7|P age Keywords: sociological, personal values, authority
In paragraph H, the writer states: ” Thus, in this explanation,the subject merges his unique personality
and personal and moral code with that of larger institutional structures, surrendering individual
properties like loyalty, self-sarcrifice and discipline to the service of malevolent systems of authortity”
This means that systems of authority are more powerful that individual personal and moral values.
– surrender (to sth) = admit defeat/ stop trying to control something, because you are weaker/less
personal values= individual properties/personal and moral code
=> ANSWER: FALSE 1. Milgram’s experiment solves an important question in sociobiology.
Keywords: solves, important, sociobiology
In the last paragraph , the writer indicates that : ” Here we have two radically different explanations for
why so many teacher-subjects were willing to forgo their sense of responsibility for the sake of an
institutional authority figure”, and ” Put another way, sociobiology is concerned with elucidating the
biological basis of all behaviour.” This means that the important question in sociobiology is making clear
the biological basis of all behaviour. Milgram’s experiment did not solve it, it just brought out two
different explanations for the results he obtained.
=> ANSWER: FALSE CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 – TEST 1 – PASSAGE 3
1. Environmentalists take a pessimistic view of the world for a number of reasons.
Keywords: environmentalists, pessimistic, world
In the first paragraph, the writer says:” For many environmentalists, the world seems to be getting
worse. They have developed a hit-list of our main fears: ….”
– pessimistic view =seems to be getting worse
– a hit-list = a list of reasons why we should be worried
=> ANSWER: YES 1. Data on the Earth’s natural resources has only been collected since 1972.
Keywords: data, natural resources, only, since 1972
Information about data on the Earth‟s natural resources is only found in paragraph 2, where the writer
states: ” First, energy and other natural resources have become more abundant, not less so, since the
book “The Limits to Growth” was published in 1972 by a group of scientists.” No year is mentioned
about when information about the Earth‟s natural resources started to be collected. 1972 is simply the
date when a book about natural resources was published.
8|P age => ANSWER: NOT GIVEN 1. The number of starving people in the world has increased in recent years.
Keywords: starving people, increased, recent years
In paragraph 2, line 4, the writer says : ” Fewer people are starving”
=> ANSWER: NO 1. Extinct species are being replaced by new species.
Keywords: Extinct species, being replaced
“Species” are only mentioned in paragraph 2. In line 5, the writer says : ” Third, although species are
indeed becoming extinct, only about 0.7% of them are expected to disappear in the next 50 years, not
20-25%, as has so often been predicted.” Their replacement by new species is not mentioned.
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN 1. Some pollution problems have been correctly linked to industrialisation.
Keywords: pollution problems, correctly linked, industrialisation
In paragraph 2, line 7, the writer says: “And finally, most forms of environmental pollution either appear
to have been exaggerated, or are transient – associated with the early phases of industrialisation and
therefore best cured not by restricting economic growth, but by accelerating it.” So, in the early period
of industrialisation, some pollution problems were linked with this new development at the time.
– associated with = linked to => ANSWER: YES 1. It would be best to attempt to slow down economic growth.
Keywords: best, slow down, economic growth
In the same sentence in paragraph 2, the writer argues that most forms of environmental pollution
are: “….therefore best cured not by restricting economic growth, but accelerating it.” So, it is best to
attempt to have more rapid economic growth, by accelerating it.
=> ANSWER: NO Questions 33-37
1. What aspect of scientific research does the writer express concern about in paragraph 4?
Keywords: scientific research, concern about
In paragraph 4, the writer says ” One is the lopsidedness built into scientific research”. In the next
sentence, the writer also states that ” Scientific funding goes mainly to areas with many problems. That
may be wise policy, but it will also create an impression that many more potential problems exist than is
the case” So, the problem referred to is that research is „lopsided‟ – funding goes to some areas of
research, but not to other areas.
9|P age => ANSWER: C 1. The writer quotes from the Worldwide Fund for Nature to illustrate how…
Keywords: quotes, Worldwide Fund for Nature
In paragraph 5, the writer says: “Understandably, perhaps, they sometimes overstate their
arguments. A press release by the Worldwide Fund for Nature in 1997 is given as an example to
– exaggerate their claims=overstate their arguments => ANSWER: D
1. What is the writer‟s main point about lobby groups in paragraph 6?
Keywords: lobby groups
In paragraph 6, the writer argues that: “That would matter less if people applied the same degree of
scepticism to environmental lobbying as they do to lobby groups in other fields” The example of trade
lobby groups which then follows is used to show that people tend to believe the claims of
environmental lobby groups more than the claims of other lobby groups. As a result, those other lobby
groups are criticised more, because people do not believe what they say.
=> ANSWER: C 1. The writer suggests that newspapers print items that are intended to
Keywords : newspapers, intended to
In paragraph 7, the writer states: “People are clearly more curious about bad news than good.
Newspapers and broadcasters are there to provide what the public wants.” Thus, newspapers print
items about the environment that usually contain bad news, because that is what people want to read.
– meet their reader‟s expectations = provide what the public wants => ANSWER: B 1. What does the writer say about America‟s waste problem?
Keywords: America‟s waste problem
In paragraph 8, the writer says: ” Yet, even if America‟s trash output continues to rise as it has done in
the past, and if the American population doubles by 2100, all the rubbish America produces thr...
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- Fall '17