CH 9 - CHILD DEVELOPMENT

CH 9 - CHILD DEVELOPMENT - CHILD DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 9...

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CHILD DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 9 Developmental psychology the study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the life span. Issues in Developmental Psychology Nature and Nurture Heredity imposes some limits on what a person can become. Home, education, nutrition, etc. can evoke positive and negative influences. Resilience: the ability to bounce back Vulnerabilities Difficult temperament, genetic disorders Protective factors High intelligence, good coordination, easy-going personality Approaches to Studying Developmental Change Longitudinal study: a type of developmental study in which the same group of participants is followed and measured at different ages, over a period of years. Approaches to Studying Developmental Change Cross-sectional study: a less expensive and less time-consuming method in which researchers compare groups of participants of different ages to determine age-related differences in some characteristics. Approaches to Studying Developmental Change Cohort effect: when certain relevant differences in groups of participants have less to do with the participants’ ages than with the eras in which they grew up. Developmental Milestones Activity Who is this? President George W. Bush Prenatal Development Conception
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Marks beginning of prenatal period Usually takes place in the fallopian tubes Fertilization of an egg by a sperm Zygote Cell that results from union of sperm and an ovum During first two weeks after conception, rapid cell division occurs Stages of Prenatal Development Germinal Zygote 1 to 2 weeks Embryo 3-8 weeks Developing human organism Major systems, organs, and structures of the body develop Stages of Prenatal Development Sometimes the zygote divides into two cells, the result of which is identical, or monozygotic , twins. There are also times when more than one egg and sperm unite, resulting in fraternal, or dizygotic , twins. Stages of Prenatal Development Fetus From week 9 to birth Rapid growth occurs Organs, structures, and body systems Fetus can respond to outside stimuli Especially sounds DeCasper & Spence research
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Infants showed preference for story that had been read during final 6 weeks of pregnancy. Stages of Prenatal Development Critical Period Period so important to development that a harmful environmental influence at this time: Can prevent a bodily structure from developing normally Body structure will not form properly, nor will it develop later Can impair later intellectual or social development Negative Influences on Prenatal Development Teratogens: Harmful agents in the prenatal environment that can negatively impact on prenatal development or even cause birth defects Impact depends on both intensity and the time at which it is present during prenatal development Most devastating consequences occur during the period of the embryo Viruses and other harmful agents, including drugs, alcohol, x-rays, and environmental toxins. Heroin, Cocaine, and Crack During Pregnancy
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CH 9 - CHILD DEVELOPMENT - CHILD DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 9...

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