mod 4 - Overview Learner Objective for Module 4 The...

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Overview Learner Objective for Module 4The Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, and FibersWhat will you learn in this module? You will:List carbohydrates that are described as simple and those that are described as complex.Describe the structure of a monosaccharide and list the three monosaccharides important in nutrition. List the three disaccharides commonly found in foods and their component monosaccharides. List the types of foods in which these sugars are found.Discuss what happens in a condensation reaction and in a hydrolysis reaction.Describe the structure of polysaccharides and list the ones important in nutrition. Discuss how starch and glycogen are similar and how they are different. Describe how the fibers differ from the other polysaccharides.Describe carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Discuss the role that fiber plays in the process.List the possible fates of glucose in the body. Define the protein-sparing action of carbohydrate.Describe how the body maintains blood glucose concentration. Discuss what happens when blood glucose rises too high or falls too low.List the health effects of sugars. List the dietary recommendations regarding concentrated sugar intakes.List the health effects of starches and fibers. List the dietary recommendations regarding these complex carbohydrates.List foods that provide starches and fibers.The Chemist's View of CarbohydratesRead ThisText page 101-102Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. These atoms form chemical bonds that follow the laws of nature. The dietary
carbohydrates are made up of simple carbohydrates (commonly referred to as sugars) and complex carbohydrates (starches and fibers). Figure 4-1 (page 102) review the atoms commonly seen in carbohydrates and how they bond.Do ThisThere are no assignments or quizzes for this section.The Simple CarbohydratesRead ThisText pages 102-105The six simple carbohydrates include the monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) and the disaccharides (sucrose, maltose and lactose). Monosaccharides are similar in numbers and kinds of atoms but differ in their arrangement and sweetness. Disaccharides are formed by condensation reactions and are broken down by hydrolysis reactions.MonosaccharidesMost monosaccharides are hexoses. The most common is glucose, which serves as the essential energy source and is commonly known as blood sugar or dextrose. Glucose (C6H12O6) is a component of all three major disaccharides. You can check out the chemical structure of glucose and other diagrams in Figure 4-2 and Figure 4-3 (pages 102 & 103).Fructose is the sweetest, occurs naturally in honey and fruits, and is added to many foods in the form of high-fructose corn syrup. It has the same chemical formula as glucose, but is structurally different (a comparison of the two appears in Figure 4-4 on page 103). It is actually shaped like a pentagon (rather than a hexagon), which accounts for its sweetness. One of the most common food additives (sweeteners) used

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