Chapter 15 notes

Chapter 15 notes - Chapter 15 Objectives (Acids and Bases)...

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Chapter 15 Objectives (Acids and Bases) Spring 2084 1. What is acidity and basicity? a) In general, any substance increasing the population of H + in water (represented as H 3 O + , hydronium ion) is an acid in aqueous solution. A base is a substance which lowers the H 3 O + concentration. b) Acidity and basicity also extend to other solvents. c) How a particular substance produces or lowers [H 3 O + ] in water defines the acid-base system. d) In any system, acids react with bases. 2. Some Acid-Base Systems. a) Arrhenius. Acid: Base: Reaction: This system did not generalize the base; there are many bases that do not contain OH¯ ion. b) Bronsted (~1923). Acid: Base: Generic Reaction: i. In this system, acids and bases are ranked according to strength. ii. Water (as well as many other substances) can function both as an acid or a base. Example 1: Use the prototype reaction above to complete the following: H 2 O + NH 3 H 2 O + HCl
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Chapter 15 Objectives (Acids and Bases) Spring 2084 Example 2: Write the formula for the conjugate base of NH 3 , HClO 4 , H 2 O. Example 3: Write the formula for the conjugate acid of F¯, H¯, NH 3 . iii. Strong acids are able to protonate water completely; all produce the same amount of H 3 O + in water (leveling effect). iv. Strong acids have very weak conjugate bases. Example 4:
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course CHEM 0970 taught by Professor Kogut during the Spring '08 term at Pittsburgh.

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Chapter 15 notes - Chapter 15 Objectives (Acids and Bases)...

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