Chapter 13 Part II - Road To Secession - The Impeding Crisis The Road To Secession Chapter 13 Part II Four main causes of the conflict between the North

Chapter 13 Part II - Road To Secession - The Impeding...

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The Impeding Crisis: The Road To Secession Chapter 13 Part II
Four main causes of the conflict between the North and South 1. Slavery as a growing moral issue in the North versus its defense and expansion in the South 2. Constitutional disputes over the nature of the Federal union and states’ rights 3. Economic differences between the industrialized North and the agricultural South over tariffs, banking, and internal improvements 4. Political blunders such as the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850
Free Soil Movement Northern Democrats and Whigs supported the Wilmot Proviso and position that all blacks – slave and free – should be excluded from the Mexican Cession (territory ceded to US from Mexico in 1848) Did not demand an end to slavery Western land for white settlers only Primary Goal -> prevent the extension of slavery in the west
Southern Position Southern whites viewed any attempts to restrict the expansion of slavery as a violation of their constitutional right to take and use their property as they wished Against both abolitionists and free- soilers
Popular Sovereignty Lewis Cass (D-Michigan) proposed a compromise solution on the issue of slavery in the western states Slavery should be determined by a vote of the people who settled the territory, a principle called popular sovereignty
Election of 1848 Democrats nominated Senator Cass -> campaigned for popular sovereignty Whigs nominated Mexican War hero General Zachary Taylor -> took no position on slavery in the territories Free-Soil Party nominated former president Martin Van Buren -> consisted of “conscience” (anti-slavery) Whigs, antislavery Democrats (“barnburners”
The 1848 Presidential Election Results
Zachary Taylor (#12) Whig 1849-1850
California Influx of settlers from gold rush led to huge population boom California petitioned for statehood Taylor called for both California and New Mexico to enter the Union as free states Sparked talk of secession among the “fire- eaters” (radicals) in the South Henry Clay proposed a Compromise
Compromise of 1850 Admit California to the Union as a free state Divide remainder of Mexican cession into two territories – Utah and New Mexico – and allow settlers to decide the slavery issue through popular sovereignty Ban the slave trade in the District of Columbia Adopt a new Fugitive Slave law and enforce it rigorously
Compromise of 1850
Millard Fillmore (#13) Whig 1850-1853
Fugitive Slave Law Passage of strict Fugitive Slave Law persuaded many southerners to accept loss

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