History Exam 1 notes

History Exam 1 notes - History Exam 1 notes The First...

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History Exam 1 notes The First Americans Mesoamerican Indians (Mexico-Central America) (at least 10 thousand years prior to Europeans (100s) very diverse in North America; 4-15 million North Americans in continent (300 million: present population in US) h Mayan and Toltec: 300-900 AD, hierarchical society, built pyramids, writing system (hieroglyphics), knew about astronomy, accurate calendar (18 groups with 20 days, 5 left over were unlucky days) 1 st civilization to use chocolate and chewing gum, mystery: seemed to vanish-disease?? Civil wars?? Ecological damage?? h Aztecs: founded Tenochtitlan near Mexico City, population 250 thousand (largest in world) Seville was a port from which Spaniards sailed that was major Spanish trade city of time, organized city when Cortez arrived, in 1519 they controlled empire of 5 million people, very warlike, tax system flourished under Montezuma II Indians of Southwest and West h Pueblos: (1700 AD ff) : craftsmen (pottery, jewelry) had 2 chiefs (1 war chief and a village chief) per tribe, enslavement was a part of their culture, took women and children from captured tribes and put to work; number of slaves was a status symbol, Spanish helped Africans and Indians merge, contrasts to slavery institution later which maintained/hardened racial boundaries, result of marriages between Spanish and blacks: mestizos, Spanish instituted a cast system based on white blood- more white blood, less taxes you had to pay, Spanish and whites united by trade, sent missionaries to Christianize Indians (Jesuits) Plains Indians h Mound Builders: 100 ft. mounds, mostly nomads who followed buffalo, used dogs as pack animals, were later introduced to horse by Europeans which increased mobility h Mississippians (800-1500): Agricultural people developed varieties of maize and beans, probably descendants of Aztecs and Mayans because practiced human sacrifice, faded due to tuberculosis? By the time Spanish came they had two growing seasons, Cahokia represented the greatest achievement of
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History Exam 1 notes - History Exam 1 notes The First...

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