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History Exam 1 notes

History Exam 1 notes - History Exam 1 notes The First...

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History Exam 1 notes The First Americans Mesoamerican Indians (Mexico-Central America) (at least 10 thousand years prior to Europeans (100s) very diverse in North America; 4-15 million North Americans in continent (300 million: present population in US) h Mayan and Toltec: 300-900 AD, hierarchical society, built pyramids, writing system (hieroglyphics), knew about astronomy, accurate calendar (18 groups with 20 days, 5 left over were unlucky days) 1 st civilization to use chocolate and chewing gum, mystery: seemed to vanish-disease?? Civil wars?? Ecological damage?? h Aztecs: founded Tenochtitlan near Mexico City, population 250 thousand (largest in world) Seville was a port from which Spaniards sailed that was major Spanish trade city of time, organized city when Cortez arrived, in 1519 they controlled empire of 5 million people, very warlike, tax system flourished under Montezuma II Indians of Southwest and West h Pueblos: (1700 AD ff) : craftsmen (pottery, jewelry) had 2 chiefs (1 war chief and a village chief) per tribe, enslavement was a part of their culture, took women and children from captured tribes and put to work; number of slaves was a status symbol, Spanish helped Africans and Indians merge, contrasts to slavery institution later which maintained/hardened racial boundaries, result of marriages between Spanish and blacks: mestizos, Spanish instituted a cast system based on white blood- more white blood, less taxes you had to pay, Spanish and whites united by trade, sent missionaries to Christianize Indians (Jesuits) Plains Indians h Mound Builders: 100 ft. mounds, mostly nomads who followed buffalo, used dogs as pack animals, were later introduced to horse by Europeans which increased mobility h Mississippians (800-1500): Agricultural people developed varieties of maize and beans, probably descendants of Aztecs and Mayans because practiced human sacrifice, faded due to tuberculosis? By the time Spanish came they
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