COMD2050 EXAM 1 NOTES - EXAM 1(Chapters 1-4 16 5 Chapter 1...

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EXAM 1 (Chapters 1-4, 16, 5)Chapter 1: The Origins of LanguageI.The Divine Sourcea.Hypothesis: If humans grow up without hearing any language, then they would begin to use the original God-given languageb.Psammetichus (Egyptian pharaoh, 2500 years ago)b.i.Isolated babies, except for the company of goats and a mute shepherd, to see what language they would pick upb.ii.Children uttered Phrygian word bekos, meaning bread.b.iii.Pharaoh concluded Phrygian (old language of Turkey), must be the original language.b.iv.Unlikely: remove the –kosending, which was added in the Greek version of the story. You are left with be- which is the sound made by goatsc.King James, IV, Scotlandc.i.Did same experiment, but the children began speaking Hebrew, which “confirmed” his belief that Hebrew was the language of the Garden of Edend.Any other experiment of the sort usually resulted in the children having no language at alle.The bible rules out any hope of reconstructing an “original” language, even if a divine source was postulatede.i.Curse of the Tower of Babel- “because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth,”(Genesis, 11:9)II.The Natural Sound Sourcea.Onomatopoeia– words that sound similar to the noises they describea.i.Examples: splash, cuckoo, bang, boom, rattle, buzz, hiss, screech, bow-wow, caw-caw, cockadoodledoob.Early words could have also come from natural cries of emotionb.i.Ouch! Wow! Yuck! Ah!III.The Social Interaction Sourcea.“Yo-He-Ho” Theory: sounds of physical effort with group coordination (hums, grunts, groans, curses, etc)b.Social Interaction and Communication was also developed in early groupsIV.The Physical Adaption Sourcea.Physical features are observed because they may have been able to support speech productionb.Transition to upright posture, bipedal (2 feet) locomotion, and a revised role for the front limbsc.60,000 years ago gorilla skulls were less human than Neanderthal skulls and the reconstructed Neanderthal vocal tracts suggest the possibility of some consonant sound distinctions.
d.35,000 years ago, reconstructions of fossilized skeletal structures began to resemble modern humans, and certain features, or partial adaptions, seemed to be relevant for speeche.Adaptations seem to be streamlined versions of features found in other primates, and they are good clues a creature possessing these has the capacity for speechf.Teeth, lips, mouth, larynx, and pharynxf.i.Teeth: f and v soundsf.ii.Lips: p or b soundsf.iii.Mouthf.iv.Tongue: shapes a wide variety of sounds inside the oral cavityf.v.Larynx: voice boxf.vi.Pharynx: acts as a resonator for increased range and clarity of sounds produced via larynx and vocal tractV.The Tool-Making Sourcea.The human brain is not only large in comparison to the human body, it is also lateralized which means that both sides have special functionsb.Left hemisphere: motor movements, complex vocalization (speaking), object manipulations (tools)c.After acquiring the ability to name objects by articulating words, humans

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