psyc-ch.1-notes

psyc-ch.1-notes - PSYC 101 FALL 2006 - CHAPTER 1...

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PSYC 101 FALL 2006 -- CHAPTER 1 1 Introduction to the Science of Psychology Chapter 1 Chapter Overview • Defining psychology • History of psychology – Origins – Approaches to psychology • Fields of psychology • The influence of culture • Critical thinking • Research methods – Research designs – Correlation and causation • Ethical guidelines • Behavioral genetics What is Psychology? Psychology is the Science of Behavior and Mental Processes Learning Objective # 1
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PSYC 101 FALL 2006 -- CHAPTER 1 2 Historical Roots Foundations of Psychology Bases of a Science Biology Evolution Psychology Philosophy Empiricism Empiricism • At the heart of modern science • Rejection of the supernatural • Observation more important than Faith Tabula rasa • We only know what we can see/test
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PSYC 101 FALL 2006 -- CHAPTER 1 3 Biology • Darwin • 1859, The Origin of Species • Theories of evolution/adaptation/ survival of the fittest • Nature (the environment) selects those individuals that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce • Humans are organisms that have evolved A Brief History of Psychology Structuralism ± Wilhelm Wundt ± Father of psychology ± Established the first psychology laboratory in 1879 ± Interested in physiological thresholds ± Studied consciousness (what we are aware of, how we interpret stimuli, etc.) ± Edward Titchener ± Father of structuralism ± Interested in the “building blocks” of consciousness Learning Objective 2
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PSYC 101 FALL 2006 -- CHAPTER 1 4 Introspection Method used by the structuralists to examine consciousness Involves careful evaluation of one’s own conscious experiences Learning Objective 3 Functionalism ± William James ± What the mind “does” “Stream of consciousness” ± First psychology laboratory in the United States at Harvard University Learning Objective 2 Gestalt Psychology The whole is more than a sum of the parts Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler Learning Objective 4
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PSYC 101 FALL 2006 -- CHAPTER 1 5 Psychoanalytic Theory ± Sigmund Freud ± Thought mental illness was due to past traumas ± Unconscious causes of behavior ± Causes are within the individual Learning Objective 5 Behaviorism ± Ivan Pavlov ± Russian physiologist ± First laboratory investigation of the conditioning of behaviors ± Identified Classical Conditioning
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psyc-ch.1-notes - PSYC 101 FALL 2006 - CHAPTER 1...

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