CHEM 012 7

These are very important in the overall shape of the

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Unformatted text preview: valent bonds are usually represented by line segments so we can also write the structure for HF like this: F H 6 9/29/11 Lone Pairs •  Note that in HF, there are some electron pairs that have not been used for bonding. Chemists call these “lone pairs” and they are extremely important as we will see shortly. Covalent Bond (= a pair of electrons) HF has three lone pairs F H What is the Lewis Structure for Cl2? •  At your desk, sketch a Lewis structure for Cl2. Be sure to indicate all lone pairs! •  How many total lone pairs are in the Cl2 structure? 7 9/29/11 Lewis Structure for Water (H2O) •  How many valence electrons does oxygen have? •  We have seen that H has a single valence electron •  How do we know how the atoms are connected? Lewis Structure of Water •  Oxygen has 6 valence (wants 8, so needs to share two electrons) •  Hydrogen has 1 valence (wants 2, so needs to share 1) H O H 8 9/29/11 Lewis Structure of Water HOH Again, we can show the covalent bonds as line segments: H O H Note that oxygen has two lone pairs. These are VERY important in the overall shape of the water molecule! CO2 Lewis Structure •  Carbon is the central atom & has 4 valence electrons (so wants to share 4 addiConal) •  Oxygen has 6 valence electrons •  Total of 1x4 + 2x6 = 16 electrons •  Both carbon and oxygen need an octet. 9 9/29/11 Procedure for Lewis structure of Molecules How many of the 1.  Draw the “skeleton” structure valence electrons have been used thus O C O far? 2. ...
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