Unit 1 Vocab.docx - CHAPTER 1 Humans and the Microbial...

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CHAPTER 1: Humans and the Microbial World Antony van Leewenhoak – “animalcule” first discovered microorganisms Microorganisms – Organism too small to be seen with the naked eye. Microbe – General term encompassing microorganisms and acellular infectious agents such as viruses. Spontaneous Generation – Discredited belief that organisms can arise from non-living matter. Francesco Redi – challenged spontaneous generation with a simply experiment showing worms found on rotting meat originated from the eggs of flies. John Needham – showed that flask containing various broths gave rise to microorganisms even when flasks were boiled and sealed with a cork. (supporting Spontaneous Generation) Lazzaro Spallanzani – obtained results contradicting Needham by boiling broths longer and melting glass necks of flasks to seal them. Louis Pasteur – demonstrated that sterile broths in swan-neck flasks remained sterile even when left open to the air. Biogenesis – The production of living things from other living things; as opposed to spontaneous generation. John Tyndall – found that various types of broth required different boiling times to be sterilized and discovered that there were heat resistant microorganisms. Ferdinand Cohn – discovered endospores in 1876 Endospores – An extraordinarily resistant dormant cell produced by some times of bacteria. Scientific Method – A process of formulating a testable explanation for a question, doing controlled experiments to test that explanation, and then publishing the methods, results and conclusions. Hypothesis – A testable explanation of an observation Control – Component of a scientific experiment that helps rule out alternative explanations of the results. Theory – In science, an explanation supported by an extensive amount of experimental evidence. Normal Microbiota – The group of microorganisms that colonize the body surfaces but do not usually cause disease. Human Microbiome Project – Undertaking that used genomics to study the normal microbiota of the human body. Microbiome – The community of microorganisms, as well as their genetic information, in a given environment. National Microbiome Initiative (NMI) – A U.S. governement program started in 2016 that supports research on the microbiomes of humans as well as those of our surrounding environment. Bioremediation – Process that uses microorganisms to degrade harmful chemicals Biotechnology – The use of microbiological and biochemical techniques to solve practical problems and produce valuable products. Pathogens – Disease-causing microbe. Emerging Infectious Disease – An infectious disease that is increasing in incidence or geographic range. Prokaryote – Single-celled organism that does not contain a membrane-bound nucleus. Eukaryote – Organism composed of one or more eukaryotic cells; members of the domain Eukarya are eukaryotes.

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