10.1.1.475.604.pdf - Metropolis Metropolis 10th National Metropolis Conference \u00c9galement disponible en fran\u00e7ais www.metropolis.net Our diverse cities

10.1.1.475.604.pdf - Metropolis Metropolis 10th National...

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Unformatted text preview: Metropolis Metropolis 10th National Metropolis Conference Également disponible en français Our diverse cities N U M B E R 4 • F A L L 2 0 0 7 Ontario GUEST EDITOR Katherine Graham Carleton University "Expanding the Debate: Multiple Perspectives on Immigration to Canada" World Trade and Convention Centre Halifax, Nova Scotia April 3 - 6, 2008 Centre Metropolis de l'Atlantique Atlantic Metropolis Centre Support was also provided by the Ontario Region of the Department of Canadian Heritage. THE METROPOLIS PROJECT Bridging Research, Policy and Practice Immigration and Diversity Issues Gaining Prominence Canada accepts some 250,000 immigrants and refugees annually • Are newcomers finding jobs and succeeding economically? • What impact has diversity had on Canada? • Do newcomers face barriers? • Why do immigrants settle primarily in our larger cities? • Are there social and economic challenges? Are we responding appropriately? Connecting the Research, Policy and Practice The Metropolis Project Secretariat is the bridge between research,policy and practice • Supports and encourages policy-relevant research of interest to the Government of Canada • Increases the uptake of research findings by policy-makers and practitioners • Manages the international arm of Metropolis Mobilizing the Network Our Partnership and Network • Five Centres of Excellence, located in Vancouver, Edmonton,Toronto, Montréal and Halifax/Moncton generate policy-relevant research on immigration and diversity • Metropolis Conferences attract 700+ participants yearly • Metropolis Presents is a public forum to discuss research and policy findings on emerging issues • Metropolis Conversations are closed-door sessions of experts that contribute to a more informed debate on immigration policy • An Interdepartmental Committee of federal partners meets quarterly for cross-cutting policy discussion • Our publications transfer research knowledge to policy-makers and practitioners • Our award-winning suite of websites provide access to hundreds of articles and working papers • Co-chair of the International Metropolis Project, the largest immigration network of its kind, bringing together more than 30 countries and international organizations Metropolis involves more than 5,500 participants from all over the world • Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Canadian Heritage, Human Resources and Social Development Canada, Public Safety Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Statistics Canada, Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency, Canada Economic Development for Quebec Regions, Canada Border Services Agency and the Rural Secretariat of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada • Project-based partnerships with other government departments, provincial and municipal governments, non-governmental organizations, and service-providing organizations in the sectors of immigration and settlement • Partnerships with countries in North America, most of Europe and much of the Asia-Pacific region, as well as a number of international organizations • Centres of Excellence involve several hundred affiliated researchers, graduate students and post-doctoral fellows from more than 20 universities across Canada Our diverse cities Table of Contents N U M B E R 3 4 • F A L L Introduction – Our Diverse Cities: Ontario 2 0 0 7 51 Katherine A. H. Graham, Carleton University 7 Diversity and the City: CERIS Research Partnerships and Knowledge Exchange for Policy Impact Fran Klodawsky, Carleton University; Tim Aubry, University of Ottawa; Rebecca Nemiroff, University of Ottawa; Benham Benhia, Carleton University; Marta Young, University of Ottawa; Carl Nicholson, Catholic Immigration Services Paul Anisef, York University; Joanna Anneke Rummens, University of Toronto and The Hospital for Sick Children; John Shields, Ryerson University 13 20 Immigration Regionalization in Ontario: Policies, Practices and Realities Margaret Walton-Roberts, Wilfrid Laurier University Engaging Employers: Strategies for the Integration of Internationally Trained Workers in Ottawa The Heterogeneity of Blacks in Ontario and the Racial Discrimination Boomerang Ginny Adey, Hire Immigrants Ottawa; Carole Gagnon, Internationally Trained Workers Partnership and United Way/Centraide Ottawa Joseph Mensah, University of Toronto David Firang, University of Toronto 26 54 59 Here’s a thought… On Unity by Appreciation of Diversity Immigrants in Ottawa: Sociocultural Composition and Demographic Structure 64 Ottawa: Our Diverse City Interim Project Report — January 2007 82 Immigration Series at the University of Guelph: The Role of Secondary Cities – A Brief Summary Hindia Mohamoud, Social Planning Council of Ottawa 39 Access and Equity in Ottawa: A Snapshot of Social Service Issues, Institutional Responses and Remaining Challenges Regarding Culture, Race and Language Rashmi Luther, Carleton University 44 48 Tom Lusis, University of Guelph 86 Geographies of Ethnocultural Diversity in a Secondtier City: Moving Beyond Where People Sleep Brian K. Ray, University of Ottawa; Jean Bergeron, Citizenship and Immigration Canada Here’s a thought… Preparing for Diversity: Improving Preventive Health Care for Immigrants Kevin Pottie, University of Ottawa; Lucenia Ortiz, Edmonton Multicultural Broker’s Cooperative; Aleida tur Kuile, University of Ottawa Fatemeh Givechian, University of Ottawa 29 Comparing Foreign-born and Canadian-born Respondents: The Panel Study on Homelessness in Ottawa Graduate Training in Migration and Ethnic Relations at the University of Western Ontario Victoria M. Esses, Roderic Beaujot, Belinda Dodson, University of Western Ontario 91 Social Housing in Ottawa Creating an Inclusive Community in a Larger Mid-sized City: A Municipal Advisory Committee’s Approach for London, Ontario Catherine Boucher, Centretown Citizens Ottawa Corporation London Diversity and Race Relations Advisory Committee 95 What a Difference Citizenship Makes! Migrant Workers in Rural Ontario Harald Bauder, University of Guelph 99 Thunder Bay: Between a Rock and a Hard Place in Northwestern Ontario 134 Funeral and Burial Sites, Rites and Rights in Multicultural Ontario Thomas Dunk, Lakehead University 104 The Importance of Immigrants to Waterloo Region’s Prosperity: A Dynamic Collaborative Community Response Sandeep Kumar Agrawal and Abdulhamid Hathiyani, Ryerson University 139 Pathways to Success in Waterloo Region: Immigrant Youth at High School Kristen Roderick and Rich Janzen, Centre for Research and Education in Human Service; Joanna Ochocka, Wilfrid Laurier University and Centre for Research and Education in Human Service; Jenni Jenkins , Wilfrid Laurier University Peter McFadden, Waterloo Region Immigrant Employment Network; Rich Janzen, Centre for Research and Education in Human Services 108 Immigrants’ Needs and Public Service Provisions in Peel Region Sandeep Kumar Agrawal, Ryerson University; Mohammad Qadeer, Queen’s University; Arvin Prasad, Regional Municipality of Peel 113 Resettlement of Government-assisted Refugees in Hamilton, Ontario Pradeep Navaratna, Settlement and Integration Services Organization 118 Immigrants and Immigrant Settlement in Hamilton Vic Satzewich and William Shaffir, McMaster University 123 In the Public Interest: Immigrant Access to Regulated Professions in Today’s Ontario Oksana Buhel, Capacity Canada; Lele Truong, Policy Roundtable Mobilizing Professions and Trades 128 Professional Immigrants on a Road to Driving Taxis in Toronto Abdulhamid Hathiyani, Ryerson University 145 The Growing Case for Youth Engagement Through Culture Elizabeth Fix and Nadine Sivak, Department of Canadian Heritage 152 211: Social Innovation Confronts Nagging Problems Bill Morris, 211 Ontario Initiative, United Way Canada 156 More Than Books: Examining the Settlement Services of the Toronto and Windsor Public Libraries Lisa Quirke, Ryerson University 161 From the Komagata Maru to Six Sikh MPs in Parliament: Factors Influencing Electoral Political Participation in the Canadian-Sikh Community Geetika Bagga, York University 166 Invisible City: Immigrants Without Voting Rights in Urban Ontario Myer Siemiatycki, Ryerson University 169 Domestic Violence in Sponsored Relationships and its Links to Homelessness: Implications for Service Delivery for Immigrant and Refugee Women K. Ekuwa Smith, Department of Canadian Heritage Thunder Bay Ontario Sudbury Ottawa Peel Toronto KitchenerWaterloo Hamilton London Windsor Introduction Our Diverse Cities: Ontario KATHERINE A. H. GRAHAM Carleton University Welcome to this edition of Our Diverse Cities. This issue focuses on immigration and diversity in Ontario. The justification for an Ontario focus derives from the challenges and interesting initiatives that are discussed in this volume. Sheer numbers, however, make the importance of understanding immigration and diversity in our most populous province even more compelling. As of the 2001 Census, 26.8% of Ontario’s population was born outside of Canada. This compares to 18.4% of Canada’s population as a whole. Toronto is the major, but by no means the only Ontario magnet for immigrants. Approximately 43.7% of the Toronto census metropolitan area population was foreign-born in 2001. In addition, Hamilton (25%), Kitchener and Windsor (22% each) and St. Catharines-Niagara and Ottawa-Gatineau (18% each) all had immigrant populations at or above the national average as of 2001. Ontario’s population is also increasingly diverse. As of 2001, 19% of the Ontario population was visible minority, compared to 13.4% for Canada as a whole (Anisef, Rummens and Shields). Today newcomers arrive from Asia and South-East Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and former Soviet block countries. However, as Givechian points out in this volume, diversity is not a new phenomenon. Indeed, Ontario is home to over one-fifth of Canada’s total North American Indian population. This is the highest share of any province or territory (Statistics Canada). Approximately half of this population lives off-reserve. The province is also home to the third largest population of Métis in the country (Ibid.). In addition, Ontario is home to a Black population that began to arrive in the early 1800s from the United States. Further Black immigration from Africa, the Caribbean and other parts of the world gives Ontario a Black population that is notable for its own linguistic, religious and cultural diversity (Mensah and Firang). Consequently, this volume deals with longstanding issues related to diversity, as well as those that may have emerged more recently. Broadly speaking, this edition deals with four themes. The first concerns the demographics of diversity in Ontario. For example, Mohamoud provides us with a detailed understanding of the changing characteristics of Ottawa’s population, while Satzewich and Shaffir’s treatment of immigrants and immigrant settlement in Hamilton does the same for that city. Other articles consider groups that are longstanding occupants of what is now Ontario, notably Aboriginal people (Fix and Sivak, who examine the issue of cultural isolation among Aboriginal youth) and the province’s Black population (Mensah and Firang). The second theme, which is perhaps the predominant one, concerns the challenges faced by newcomers and particular segments of the province’s diverse population. It is notable that many of these contributions focus on efforts to deal with these challenges. Roderick et al. focus on the challenges faced by immigrant youth and the key role of self-motivation, the existence of a supporter or role model and community level supports in fostering positive education outcomes. Fix and Sivak look at social isolation among immigrant and Aboriginal youth. The nuances and challenges of housing and homelessness issues, as experienced by different segments of our population are dealt with extensively in this volume. For example, Boucher points out the mismatch between our social housing stock and the requirement for accommodation of relatively large families of newcomers. Looking at the homeless population in Ottawa, Klodawsky et al. find that there are significant differences in the education and health status between foreign-born and Our Diverse Cities 3 Canadian-born homeless people. Foreign-born homeless are more likely to be homeless for financial reasons than their Canadian-born counterparts. Employment is another area that receives significant coverage. Hathyani focuses on the institutional and individual barriers confronted by immigrant professionals who find themselves driving taxis in Toronto. Buhel and Truong report on a policy paper arguing for immigrant access to the regulated professions in the province. McFadden and Janzen describe the genesis and contributions of the Waterloo Region Immigrant Employment Network (WRIEN) to making the connection between local employers and new arrivals. In Waterloo, employers came to recognize that they need to employ immigrants to maintain a skilled labour force and build local prosperity. McFadden and Janzen see this as key to the success of WRIEN. Ray and Bergeron look at the home-work commuter patterns of different populations within the Ottawa-Gatineau region and argue that we pay insufficient attention to the importance of workplaces as sites for cross-cultural integration. The third theme in this volume concerns the relationship of diverse populations and newcomers to local politics and governments in Ontario. Siemiatycki looks at munipal franchise and voting rights of non-citizens in Toronto. He offers five reasons why municipal voting rights should be extended to all permanent residents of the city regardless of citizenship. In the same vein, Bagga explores why Sikh Canadians have been so active in electoral politics. On the question of engagement, the London Diversity and Race Relations Advisory Committee (LDRRAC) has contributed an overview of its history and approach to building an inclusive community. Readers will also learn about the challenges and changes in the delivery of local services. For example Agrawal, Qadeer and Prasad look at municipal services and ethnic enclaves in the Peel Region. They conclude that the existence of ethnic enclaves may not have a significant impact on the demand for services but that enclaves may offer opportunities for targeted delivery of services. Quirke discusses the increasing role of public libraries in providing settlement services. Agrawal and Hathiyani examine the barriers that ethnic communities face in locating funeral home and practicing religious and cultural rites for the dead in traditional Ontario. 4 Our Diverse Cities The final cluster of contributions to this volume deals with how Ontario institutions are trying to deepen our understanding of diversity through research and formal education programs. Anisef, Rummens and Shields track the evolution of the Ontario Metropolis Centre (CERIS) since its establishment in 1996. They report on its expanding reach, which has moved from conducting research focused on Toronto to the broader Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The volume contains reports on the 2006 speakers series at the University of Guelph (Lusis) and the newly established Graduate Program in Migration and Ethnic Relations at the University of Western Ontario (Esses, Beaujot and Dodson). In addition, several of the articles included in this issue of Our Diverse Cities were written by graduates of Ryerson University’s Graduate Program in Immigration and Settlement Studies (Bagga, Hathiyani, Navaratna, Quirke). Clearly, Ontario’s research and scholarly community is interested in and committed to fostering understanding of immigration and diversity in the province. This volume is important for another reason, as well. Many of the contributions deal with immigration and diversity in second- and third-tier cities – Hamilton, Kitchener-Waterloo, Ottawa, Thunder Bay, Windsor and the like. This is significant because historically, the bulk of research and commentary on immigration and diversity in Ontario has focused on Toronto and, more recently, the GTA. This is completely understandable given the rate of immigration to the GTA, the increasing diversity of its population and the benefits and challenges of having different populations that both mix and are sequestered in residential and workplace enclaves. However second- and third-tier cities and even smaller centres deserve attention as we move forward. There are a number of reasons for this. Broadly speaking, Ontario’s second- and third-tier cities fall into two categories. The first consists of centres like Hamilton, Kitchener, Windsor, St. Catharines-Niagara and Ottawa-Gatineau, which have immigrant populations at or above the national percentage. The contribution to this volume by the LDRRAC suggests that London is also experiencing a recent immigration boom after a significant period of population stability. A number of articles in this issue cover these localities: Navaratna as well as Satzewich and Shaffir cover Hamilton; McFadden and The challenges faced by newcomers and other diverse population groups in Ontario raise a myriad of policy questions depending on whether one is looking at education, health care, relationship with the justice system or some other domain.…There is one over-arching question, however: beyond public education and exhortation, what can governments do to foster welcoming communities? Janzen cover Kitchener-Waterloo; Quirke touches on one aspect of Windsor’s experience with immigrants and minorities; and a plethora of articles (Mohamoud; Luther; Bergeron and Ray; Boucher; Klodawsky et al., Adey and Gagnon) build on the Our Diverse Cities: Ottawa project featured herein and describe the challenges facing newcomers and minorities in Ottawa. The second group consists of places like Kingston, Sudbury and Thunder Bay, which are now receiving very few immigrants and whose population diversity largely stems from historic settlement. The same might be said of small town and rural Ontario. In the case of second- and third-tier cities receiving a significant number of newcomers and rapidly becoming more diverse, we need to understand the unique characteristics of each that may foster or hinder settlement and harmony and those that are shared – either with other second- and third-tier cities in Ontario and other provinces and with the major magnets such as the GTA and the B.C. Lower Mainland. What attracts immigrants, Aboriginal people and other visible minorities to these places? What are the attributes of a local environment that foster newcomers’ settlement, retention, harmony and prosperity? What is the role of governments and public policy, the business sector and the voluntary sector in achieving these goals? Many of the contributions to this volume deal with these questions by giving examples of specific initiatives related to employment, education, housing and so on. However we need a more systematic program of research. Thomas Dunk’s contribution to this volume, focusing on Thunder Bay, highlights the situation in other second- and third-tier cities and in small town and rural Ontario – immigration is down to a trickle and diversity is historical rather than evolutionary. Municipalities are increasingly preoccupied with the needs and interests of the current ageing population and sustaining the local economic base. The paradox is that these places need to focus on encouraging new immigration and diversity in their population in order to survive and prosper economically and socially. An important question is how our second- and third-tier cities and other parts of the province outside of the GTA can make themselves more welcoming to attract and retain immigrants. As Bauder points out, those parts of small town and rural Ontario that increasingly re...
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