CalculusII Project1Air Pollution: Particulate MatterPurposeWe will use this lab to develop an understanding of how fine, airborne, particulate matter ismeasured by industry and regulators.We will use functions and integrals to understand howaerosol concentrations are modeled, and we will use numerical methods of computing integrals tomake the connection between the theory and data.PreviewScientists,publichealthadvocates,envi-ronmentalists, and Environmental ProtectionAgency regulators are concerned with airbornefine particulate matter (PM) for two reasons:PM is one of several pollutants that combineto create smog, thereby limiting visibility andobscuring scenic vistas; and inhalation of PMcontributes to a variety of respiratory illnesses.TerminologyAlthough we speak of haze, dust, and smoke as different atmospheric phenomena, all of thesethings are caused by particles in the air. The particles may be solid or liquid, and they may bespherical or irregular in shape. Nevertheless, all of these airborne elements are classified asaerosolsby environmental scientists. Thus, we will be speaking of measuring aerosols in the atmosphere.Measuring ParticulatesThe aerosols in the atmosphere over a city generally have a great variety of sizes of particles: theytypically range from 10 angstroms (10˚A= 10·10-10m = 10-9m) to 100 microns (100μm =100·10-6m = 10-4m) in size. But the effect on our lives is not simple. Indeed, it is typicallyneither the largest nor the smallest particles which are of most concern in our breathing; ratherthere is an “optimal” range of sizes, which is a mid-sized range, that causes the greatest problemsfor our lungs. This issue of the size of the particles has motivated scientists to use the diameter ofthe particles both in their measurements and in their analyses.