09 Economy - Cultural Anthropology 1/27/08 Economy 1 How...

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Unformatted text preview: Cultural Anthropology 1/27/08 Economy 1 How Societies Work: Subsistence, Production, Exchange, and Consumption When we look at the Modern World as a whole, many people divide the world between the First and Third or Developed and Developing/ Underdeveloped Worlds. This division reflects real economic, social, political, and and cultural differences. How to explain these differences is a problem that spans the social sciences, public and private sectors, and national and international policy, and has immeasurable consequences for individuals regardless of where or how well they live. One of the problems we face in trying to understand these issues is the very language we use to discuss them: Terms such as Developed and Underdeveloped hide a unilineal evolutionary paradigm that presupposes Progress as a universal human goal. In other words, we still consider much of the rest of the world to be less evolved than we are. On the other hand, there also is a tendency to view the First World-Third World divide as due simply to the rapacity of Euro-American colonialism and commerm. Both of these views are incomplete because they ignore Culture, the system of shared beliefs that makes it possible for societies to exist and function in the first place. Cultural Anthropology provides us with the tools to understand how individuals are made members of their society and how those societies manage to accomplish the multitude of tasks necessary for their survival. Cultural Anthropology 1/27/08 Economy 2 The Dimensions of Social Complexity Band Population Complexity Small Group Size: 20-low 100s (or 10 2 ) Low Population Density Dynamic Population Membership by Birth Seasonal Residential Mobility The Dimensions of Social Complexity Band Tribe Population Complexity Modest Group Size: 100s-1000s (or 10 3 ) Low-Lower Population Density Variable Population Membership by Birth Variable Residential Mobility The Dimensions of Social Complexity Band Tribe Chiefdom Population Complexity Larger Group Size: 1000s-10,000s (or 10 4 ) Higher Population Density Stable Population Membership by Birth Reduced Residential Mobility The Dimensions of Social Complexity Band Tribe Chiefdom State Population Complexity Large Group Size: 10,000s-1,000,000s (or up to 10 6 ) High Population Density Static/Dynamic Population Membership by Territory Static/Dynamic Residence The Dimensions of Social Complexity Band Tribe Chiefdom State Industrial State Population Complexity Very Large Group Size: 1,000,000s-1,000,000,000s (or up to 10 9 ) Very High Population Density Dynamic Population Membership by Territory Dynamic Residence The Dimensions of Social Complexity Band Tribe Chiefdom State Industrial State Small Scale Intermediate Scale Large Scale Population Complexity Cultural Anthropology 1/27/08 Economy 3 Gregory Johnson: Organizational Structure and Scalar Stress As groups get bigger, they either get organized or they...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course LIBART 0510-210-0 taught by Professor Middleton during the Winter '07 term at RIT.

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09 Economy - Cultural Anthropology 1/27/08 Economy 1 How...

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