Accordingtotheresourcedependence

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Unformatted text preview: onsistently and promptly. Referent Treat each subordinate fairly. Show you would be personally pleased if the subordinate carried out the request for you. Expert Keep informed. Avoid threatening subordinates' self-esteem. Resource Dependence Approach Resource Dependence Approach One source of subunit power is the ability to control the supply of important resources required by other subunits. According to the resource dependence approach, those subunits that obtain the most critical and hard­to­get resources acquire the most power because of the dependencies that are developed. Strategic Contingencies Approach Strategic Contingencies Approach According to the strategic contingencies approach, a unit’s power is based on three things: The ability to cope with uncertainty. Centrality in the flow of information and work between units. Units are more central if they have an immediate effect on the organization or an impact on most other units. Nonsubstitutability. The harder it is for another unit to perform the activities of this unit, the more power this unit has. The Strategic Contingencies Model The Strategic Contingencies Model (Figure 9­2) Ability to Reduce Uncertainty Organizational Centrality Subunit Power Degree to Which Activities are Nonsubstitutable Signs of Power Signs of Power Some signs of power include the abilities to: intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble get a good placement for a subordinate get approval for expenditures beyond the budget get above­average salary increases for subordinates get items on the agenda at policy meetings get fast access to top decision makers get regular, frequent access to top decision makers get early information about decisions and policy shifts Global Perspectives: Global Perspectives: Signs of Power in Japan Signs of power may vary from one nation to another. For example, in Japanese organizations the appearance of equality is an important cultural value. Because of this, salary, rank, and office space may have little to do with power. Instead, power can be gauged by studying patterns of interaction. Power flows from expertise, and those with power can be identified because others consult with them. Social Influence Approaches Social Influence Approaches Social influence is the use of power in social relationships. People use a remarkable variety of tactics when attempting to influence others. Managers like to use participation, rational persuasion, and inspirational appeals to influence others. Tactics such as use of pressure and formation of coalitions are less popular. Promising something in return for compliance is an influence tactic of last resort; it’s costly and may create expectations that there will always be rewards for compliance. Social Influence Tactics Social Influence Tactics (Figure 9­3) Rank Tactic Description 1 Consultation 2 Rational Persuasion Inspirational Appeals Seeking participation in making or planning implementation of a decision. Using logical arguments and facts to persuade another. 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ingratiatin...
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