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Unformatted text preview: goals they are seeking. When they are trying to secure personal benefits they tend to use ingratiation, and when they are trying to secure organizational goals they use a broader array of influence tactics. Social Influence and Type of Social Influence and Type of Involvement Compliance occurs when people do something because they don’t want to bear the costs of not doing it. Identification results when influence flows from a person’s attractiveness.
Internalization takes place when we do something because we believe it is “the right thing to do.” Empowering Others
Empowering Others To foster a creative and productive environment where employees are motivated to achieve exceptional performance, the organization’s culture needs to empower its employees.
Empowerment seeks to break the cycle of powerlessness in organizations by giving employees a real sense of control.
Empowerment gives people in organizations the ability to get things done, often at levels of the hierarchy where the power can be most directly and effectively applied. “I am the people the mob the crowd the mass.
Do you know that all the great work of the world is done through me?”
Carl Sandburg Powerlessness
Powerlessness Learned helplessness is a condition that results from the belief that one’s behaviors simply don’t make a difference. Learned helplessness results in feelings of powerlessness.
Causes of powerlessness in organizations include: rules won’t change
bosses are set in their ways
things have always been done a certain way
the assembly line is relentless Some Consequences of Some Consequences of Powerlessness
Self-Efficacy Depression Powerlessness
to Illness Burnout
Failure Stages of the Empowerment Process
Stages of the Empowerment Process
(From Figure 94)
STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 STAGE 4 STAGE 5 Conditions
Outcomes Some Conditions Leading to Some Conditions Leading to Powerlessness Organizational factors such as bureaucratic climate
Rewards that aren’t tied to performance
Routine, simplified jobs Some Empowering Managerial Some Empowering Managerial Practices Let the people who work for you participate in decision making. They will gain a sense of control over their work lives and will be more enthusiastic about implementing decisions.
Offer control over work processes, such as the ability to stop the assembly line.
Tie rewards to performance. Employees naturally feel powerless when they see that their actions don’t directly influence things they care about.
Express confidence, encouragement, and support. Celebrate “small wins” and provide assurance that obstacles can be overcome. Sources of SelfEfficacy Information
Sources of SelfEfficacy Information Enactive attainment. People may gain self
efficacy through actual mastery of a task.
Vicarious experience. People may gain self
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- Spring '12