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Tactics Making an emotional request or proposal that arouses
enthusiasm by appealing to values and ideals or
Seeking to get someone in a good mood or to like you
before asking for something.
Seeking the aid of others to persuade someone, or
using he support of others as an argument for
Using demands, threats, or intimidation to get
Seeking to persuade someone that the request is
approved by higher levels, or appealing to higher levels
for help in getting compliance.
Promising some rewards or benefits in exchange for
compliance. Rational Persuasion
Rational Persuasion One way to get what you want is to make a compelling, persuasive argument.
Persuasive communicators are well liked and eloquent and have high credibility.
They gain credibility by their apparent expertise and by giving the impression that their motives are honorable.
Persuasive messages are clear and are moderately inconsistent with the message receiver’s attitudes; a message that is entirely consistent with the receiver’s attitudes makes no difference, while a message that is totally inconsistent is likely to be rejected out of hand. Liking and Ingratiation
Liking and Ingratiation We’re more willing to do something for people we like.
Liking may be based on such things as: physical attractiveness
compliments and flattery
contact and cooperation
association with other positive things
social similarity Because people like others who are similar to them, there may be resulting, unconscious bias against people who are different. Emotional Appeals
Emotional Appeals Friendly emotions are a useful influence approach.
Negative or unpleasant emotions can also be tools of social influence, especially when the person displaying the emotions has more power than the target of the influence.
Emotional contrast can be helpful; the presence of a nasty person makes a warm and friendly person seem even warmer and friendlier, and makes compliance with this person’s requests more likely. Social Proof
Social Proof Another way to get people to take some action is by convincing them that others are taking the same action; this is called social proof.
The fact that others are doing something suggests that it is appropriate and socially acceptable.
Bartenders who salt tip jars with a few dollar bills at the beginning of the evening and producers of charity telethons who spend much of their time listing viewers who have already contributed are exploiting social proof. Choosing from Among Social Influence Choosing from Among Social Influence Approaches People prefer some influence approaches, such as participation, to others, such as promising something in return for compliance.
People also select influence approaches to fit the situation.
Individuals responding to authoritarian managers tend to use approaches such as blocking and ingratiation, while those responding to participative managers are more likely to rely on rational persuasion.
Employees also use different influence approaches with their superiors depending on the...
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- Spring '12
- Power, Pfeffer, Ingratiation