Whoselectedtheoutsideconsultantwhowas

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Unformatted text preview: acles on the way to the bottom line. Exploitative mentality. A selfish perspective that encourages using people to benefit one’s own immediate interests. Madison Avenue mentality. Says, “It’s right if I can convince you that it’s right.” Focuses on making others believe our actions are moral. Organizational Determinants: Norms and Organizational Determinants: Norms and Counternorms (Figure 9­7) Norms Openness, honesty, candor Follow the rules Be cost­effective Take responsibility “All for one and one for all” Maintain an appearance of consensus; support the team Take timely action Counternorms Secrecy and lying; “play your cards close to your chest” Break the rules to get the job done. “Spend it or burn it” Avoid responsibility; “pass the buck” Achieve your goals at the expense of others Maintain high visibility; “grandstanding” “Never do today what you can put off until tomorrow” Pfeffer’s Political Strategies Pfeffer’s Political Strategies MAKE POWER UNOBTRUSIVE BUILD LEGITIMACY EFFECTIVE POLITICS BUILD A BASE OF SUPPORT Pfeffer’s Political Tactics Pfeffer’s Political Tactics Selectively use objective criteria Use outside experts they have expertise they appear to be objective they are expensive Control the agenda keep items off the agenda that you don’t want discussed place items on the agenda in ways to get desired amount of discussion place a weak “dummy” proposal on the agenda before a key proposal you want to be approved Pfeffer’s Political Tactics Pfeffer’s Political Tactics (Continued) Form coalitions external coalitions these bring in new resources they may cause resentment internal coalitions these may seem less overtly political than external coalitions one form of internal coalition is coalition through promotions Coopt dissenters Use committees Questioning the Tactics Questioning the Tactics Sample questions to challenge the tactics might include: Why were these criteria specified in the posting of job requirements? Who selected the outside consultant who was brought in to make recommendations regarding changes in the reward system? Why wasn’t a discussion of the proposed job redesign program on the agenda? Is this committee to which I’ve been appointed for real or is the decision it’s making a “done deal”? Defensive Behaviors Defensive Behaviors (From Figure 9­8) Defensive Behaviors to Avoid Action overconforming passing the buck playing dumb depersonalization stretching and smoothing stalling Defensive Behaviors (Continued) Defensive Behaviors (Continued) (From Figure 9­8) Defensive Behaviors to Avoid Blame buffing playing safe justifying scapegoating misrepresenting escalation of commitment Defensive Behaviors to Avoid Change Defensive Behaviors to Avoid Change resisting change protecting turf Impression Management Impression Management Impression management is behavior that people direct toward others to create and maintain desired perceptions of themselves. The most prominent type of impression management behavior is self­presentation, which involves the manipulation of information about oneself. Self­presentation can be verbal or nonverbal or involve display of artifacts. There are at least eight types of verbal self­ presentations. Verbal Self­Presentational Verbal Self­Presentational Behaviors (Figure 9­9) Rendering Favors Other Enhancement SelfDescriptions Verbal SelfPresentation Acclaiming Apologies Organization Descriptions Opinion Conformity Accounts Political Games Political Games (From Figure 9­10) Henry Mintzberg has suggested that organizational politics is a “collection of goings on, a set of ‘games’ taking place … a kind of three ring circus.” He identified four types of games: Authority Games Power Base Games Rivalry Games Change Games Asking Whether a Political Act is Ethical Asking Whether a Political Act is Ethical (Figure 9­11) Utility: Does the Act Optimize the Satisfaction of All Constituencies? NO YES...
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