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Unformatted text preview: acles on the way to the bottom line. Exploitative mentality. A selfish perspective that encourages using people to benefit one’s own immediate interests.
Madison Avenue mentality. Says, “It’s right if I can convince you that it’s right.” Focuses on making others believe our actions are moral. Organizational Determinants: Norms and
Organizational Determinants: Norms and
Counternorms (Figure 97)
Norms Openness, honesty, candor Follow the rules
“All for one and one for all”
Maintain an appearance of consensus; support the team
Take timely action Counternorms Secrecy and lying; “play your cards close to your chest” Break the rules to get the job done. “Spend it or burn it” Avoid responsibility; “pass the buck” Achieve your goals at the expense of others Maintain high visibility; “grandstanding” “Never do today what you can put off until tomorrow” Pfeffer’s Political Strategies
Pfeffer’s Political Strategies
POLITICS BUILD A BASE
OF SUPPORT Pfeffer’s Political Tactics
Pfeffer’s Political Tactics Selectively use objective criteria
Use outside experts they have expertise
they appear to be objective
they are expensive Control the agenda keep items off the agenda that you don’t want discussed
place items on the agenda in ways to get desired amount of discussion
place a weak “dummy” proposal on the agenda before a key proposal you want to be approved Pfeffer’s Political Tactics
Pfeffer’s Political Tactics
(Continued) Form coalitions external coalitions these bring in new resources they may cause resentment internal coalitions these may seem less overtly political than external coalitions one form of internal coalition is coalition through promotions Coopt dissenters
Use committees Questioning the Tactics
Questioning the Tactics
Sample questions to challenge the tactics might include: Why were these criteria specified in the posting of job requirements? Who selected the outside consultant who was brought in to make recommendations regarding changes in the reward system? Why wasn’t a discussion of the proposed job redesign program on the agenda? Is this committee to which I’ve been appointed for real or is the decision it’s making a “done deal”? Defensive Behaviors
(From Figure 98)
Defensive Behaviors to Avoid Action overconforming passing the buck playing dumb depersonalization stretching and smoothing stalling Defensive Behaviors (Continued)
Defensive Behaviors (Continued)
(From Figure 98)
Defensive Behaviors to Avoid Blame buffing
escalation of commitment Defensive Behaviors to Avoid Change
Defensive Behaviors to Avoid Change resisting change
protecting turf Impression Management
Impression Management Impression management is behavior that people direct toward others to create and maintain desired perceptions of themselves.
The most prominent type of impression management behavior is selfpresentation, which involves the manipulation of information about oneself.
Selfpresentation can be verbal or nonverbal or involve display of artifacts.
There are at least eight types of verbal self
presentations. Verbal SelfPresentational Verbal SelfPresentational Behaviors (Figure 99)
Enhancement SelfDescriptions Verbal SelfPresentation Acclaiming Apologies Organization
Conformity Accounts Political Games
(From Figure 910) Henry Mintzberg has suggested that organizational politics is a “collection of goings on, a set of ‘games’ taking place … a kind of three ring circus.”
He identified four types of games: Authority Games
Power Base Games
Change Games Asking Whether a Political Act is Ethical Asking Whether a Political Act is Ethical (Figure 911)
Utility: Does the Act Optimize
the Satisfaction of All
Constituencies? NO YES...
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- Spring '12