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Unformatted text preview: eme. Examine the data, and then answer
the questions that follow. The transcription is phonetic; the tilde ~ over a vowel represents
‘sister’s brother’ [ǰəvab] ‘answer’ [səb i]
‘pocket’ [ləgbhəg] ‘approximately’ [bhi]
‘to be sold’ i). Do the sounds [b] and [bh] contrast in Hindi, are they in free variation, or are they in
complementary distribution? If either contrast or free variation, justify your answer from the
data. If complementary distribution, state the distribution of the two words.
ii). Do the two sounds in question represent different phonemes in Hindi, or are they allophones
of the same phoneme?
ANSWER KEY: - there is one minimal pairs with distinction in meaning, illustrating the two sounds. This is
the pair [bar] ‘occasion’ and [bhar] ‘burden’
this demonstrates that the sounds contrast in Hindi, and they represent therefore different
phonemes: /b/ and /bh/ EXERCISE 9. The following three sounds exist phonetically in Japanese: [h], [ɸ], and [ç]. ([ɸ] is a
voiceless bilabial fricative; it is usually Romanized in transliteration as f. [ç] is a voiceless palatal
fricative. Note also that [ɯ] is a high back unrounded vowel). Examine the data below, given in
phonetic transcription, and then determine which of these three possibilities if the case for
i. The three sounds are allophones of the same phoneme ii. Two of the three sounds are allophones of one phoneme, while the third belongs
to another phoneme iii. The three sounds represent three different phonemes. 9|Page PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES– LINA01 H3F PRACTICE EXERCISES –ANSWER KEY Justify your answer. If you find that some or all of these sounds belong to the same
phoneme, give the rule or rules determining the distribution of allophones. If you find that some
or all of these sounds contrast, prove it.
[çito] ‘person’ [ɸɯne] ‘ship’ [haha] ‘mother’ [hon] ‘book’ [çiɸɯ] ‘skin’ [haʃi] ‘chopsticks’ [asaçi] ‘morning sun’ [hohei] ‘infantryman’ [heta] ‘awkward, unskillful’ [ɸɯhenɸɯto] ‘neutrality’ ANSWER KEY: - in order to answer this question, it is necessary to examine the distribution of the three
pairs of sounds: [h] – [ɸ]; [ɸ - ç]; [ç - h]
there are no minimal pairs illustrating them; therefore, we need to examine their
# - a # #
ɯ - i a - a
e h [ç]
ɯ # i ɯ the distribution above illustrates complementary patterns; ɸ is possible only when
followed by the sound ɯ; ç is possible only when followed by the sound i; and h van be
followed by a more extensive class of vowels
we also know that the three sounds have features in common; all of them are fricative
sounds. Therefore we can conclude that they are allophones of the same phoneme; the
phoneme is the sound which has the widest distribution, namely /h/
[ɸ]/ _ ɯ [ç] _ i
10 | P a g e PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES– LINA01 H3F PRACTICE EXERCISES –ANSWER KEY OR
/h / [h]/elsewhere
- 11 | P a g e [ɸ]/_ ɯ [ç]/_i...
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This note was uploaded on 09/11/2012 for the course LINGUISTIC LINA01 taught by Professor Monica-alexandrinairimia during the Summer '11 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.
- Summer '11