Practice exercises_phonemes_allophones_answer_key

Practice exercises_phonemes_allophones_answer_key -...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
P HONEMES AND A LLOPHONES L INA 01 H 3 F P RACTICE EXERCISES ANSWER KEY 1 | P a g e E XERCISE 1 . Fijian (an Austronesian language, of the Malayo-Polynesian family) has prenazalized stops among its inventory of phonemes. The prenazalized stop [ n d] consists of a nasal pronounced immediately before the stop, with which it forms a single unit. Consider the following Fijian words as pronounced in fast speech: vi n di ‘to spring up’ ke n da ‘we’ tiko ‘to stay’ tutu ‘grandfather’ viti ‘Fiji’ dovu ‘sugracane’ do n do ‘to stretch out one’s hand’ dina ‘true’ dalo ‘taro plant’ vu n di ‘plantain banana’ ma n da ‘first’ tina ‘mother’ mata ‘eye’ mokili ‘round’ veve n du ‘a type of plant’ On the basis of these data, determine for Fijian whether [d], [ n d] and [t] are allophones of a single phoneme or whether they constitute two or three distinct phonemes. If you find that two of them (or all of them) are allophones of a single phoneme, give the rule that describes the distribution of each allophone. If you analyze all three as distinct phonemes, justify your answer. ( Note: In Fijian all syllables end in a vowel) ANSWER KEY : - in order to answer this question, it is necessary to examine the distribution of the three pairs of sounds: [t] – [d]; [t- n d]; [d- n d] - the first pair : [t] – [d]. There is a minimal pair with distinction in meaning. This is the minimal pair: dina ‘true’ vs. tina ‘mother’. As it can be seen in this pair, only the sounds t and d are distinct, while the other sounds are identical. The difference in meaning demonstrates that /d/ and /t/ are distinct phonemes in the language. - the second pair: [t- n d]. There is a minimal pair with distinction in meaning. This is the minimal pair vi n di ‘to spring up’ vs. viti ‘Fiji’. As it can be seen in this pair, only the sounds t and n d are distinct, while the other sounds are identical. The difference in meaning demonstrates that / n d/ and /t/ are distinct phonemes in the language - the third pair: [d- n d]. There are no minimal pairs. therefore we need to examine the distribution of the two sounds o Distribution of [d] and [ n d]
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
P HONEMES AND A LLOPHONES L INA 01 H 3 F P RACTICE EXERCISES ANSWER KEY 2 | P a g e [d] [ n d] _____________ _____________ # o i i # i e a # a o o u i a a e u - the distribution above demonstrates that both [d] and [ n d] can be followed by the same types of segments (vowels like a, o, i ); the sound that precedes makes the distinction between them - [d] can be found only word-initially; [ n d] is not found word-initially, but it can be preceded by different types of vowels - knowing that [d] and [ n d] share features (the features stop, among others), it can be postulated that they constitute allophones of the same phoneme. - the phoneme is represented by the variant with the widest distribution - / n d/ (/ n d/ can be preceded and followed by a more extensive class of sounds, as shown above) - allophonic rules: / n d/ [ n d]/V_V / n d / OR [d]/word initially_ [ n d]/V_V [d]/#_ - E XERCISE 2. [r] and [l] are in complementary distribution in one variety of Ganda (a major language spoken in Uganda). Sate the conditions under which each appears.
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Summer '11
  • Monica-AlexandrinaIrimia
  • Phoneme, International Phonetic Alphabet, KU, ALLOPHONES– LINA01 H3F, LINA01 H3F PRACTICE, H3F PRACTICE EXERCISES

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 11

Practice exercises_phonemes_allophones_answer_key -...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online