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[pʌnu] ‘leaf’ [tʌru] ‘bottom’ [vʌǰu] ‘opportunity’ [khʌto] ‘sour’ [šʌki] ‘suspicious’ [baǰu] ‘run’ [gʌdo] ‘dull’ [bʌnu] ‘forest’ [dʌru] ‘door’ [bʌču] ‘be safe’ [ǰʌǰu] ‘judge’ h [p ʌnu] ‘snake hood’ ANSWER KEY: - in order to answer this question, it is necessary to examine each of the three pairs of
first, p and b. There is a minimal pair with distinction in meaning, involving them – [pʌnu]
‘leaf’, and [bʌnu] ‘forest’. Therefore, /b/ and /p/ are distinct phonemes.
second, p and ph. There is a minimal pair with distinction in meaning, involving them [pʌnu] ‘leaf’ and [phʌnu] ‘snake hood’. Therefore, /p/ and /ph/ are distinct phonemes.
third, b and ph. There is a minimal pair with distinction in meaning, illustrating them[bʌnu] ‘forest’ and [phʌnu] ‘snake hood’. Therefore, /b/ and /ph/ are distinct phonemes. EXERCISE 6. Determine whether [s], [ʃ] and [z] are all allophones of the same phoneme or of any
of them are in contrast. If they are all members of the same phoneme, state the distribution of the
allophones and pick one as the basic sound of the phoneme. [ɯ] is a high back unrounded vowel.
‘mistake’ PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES– LINA01 H3F PRACTICE EXERCISES –ANSWER KEY
‘cushion’ [ʃesuʃil] [sᴐm]
‘color’ ‘washroom’ ANSWER KEY: - in order to answer this question, it is necessary to examine each of the three pairs of
sounds [s] – [ʃ]; [s] – [z]; [ʃ] – [z].
there are no minimal pairs illustrating any of them; the next step is to examine the
distribution of each of these sounds.
[ʃ] [s] - - - [z] #
some patterns emerge in the date above; [ʃ] can be followed only by front sounds; [s]
cannot be followed by front sounds, but can be placed word-initially; [z] can be preceded
only by nasal sounds, and cannot be followed by front sounds.
therefore, the three sounds are found in complementary distribution.
the three sounds also share features: they are fricative, among others. The phoneme is
represented by the variant with the widest distribution - /s/ (/s/ can be preceded by
consonants like /l/, by vowels, and by the edge of the word, and it can be followed by a
more extensive class of non-front vowels, as shown above)
[z]/ [C, +nasal] _ [V, back] (remember that non-front vowels are also
classified as back) [ʃ]/_[V, front]
OR (C = consonant) /s/ [s]/elsewhere
6|Page [z]/[C, +nasal] [ʃ]/_[V, front] PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES– LINA01 H3F PRACTICE EXERCISES –ANSWER KEY EXERCISE 7. Exam...
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- Summer '11