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HISTORY 111A2 - Wednesday The Persian Wars and Greek...

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Wednesday, October 31, 2007: The Persian Wars and Greek Identity Persians invaded Greece twice 490 BCE and 480 BCE o Depiction of Persians & Notions of What is “Greek” o Notions of “freedom” Self-governing polis Citizenship Law: laid out Eunomia (well-ordered state ruled by law), political slogan Persia: Expansion & Empire o Expansionist state, imperialists o Subject to Medes at one time o Cyrus helps set them free and becomes ruler Conquers Lydia Takes control of Greek city-states Conquers Babylon o Cambyses conquers Egypt Son of Cyrus Xerxes son of Darius (failed at Marathon) o Preparations for invasion of Greece was extensive o Bridging the Hellespont o Easily angered o Presumption Herodotus explains Greek depiction of the Persians o Collection of stories who were remembered o Xerxes is seen as a grand man with grand expectations o Whipping the Hellespont o Story of Pythius o Hybris o Xerxes pictured as bad tyrant Hubris: excessive pride Aspiring to more than a mortal should aspire to Assuming power that only should be to the gods Greek Depiction of the Greeks o Described by Persians o “Great Fighters” o Demaratus Dethroned Spartan king that describes Greeks Greek Response to Persian Invasion o League of 481 BCE Against Persians Not all states of Greece felt that they wanted to deal with Persians o Cooperation & Divisiveness o Questions of Strategy: Central Greece or Isthmus
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Disagreement of where to defend Greece against Persians From north or south o Co-ordination of Army and Navy: Thermopylae & Artemisium Greeks were well coordinated Led by Leonidas at Thermopylae The Battle of Thermopylae o Leonidas held ground for two days o Greeks betrayed by own who tells Xerxes how to attack o Greeks give up arms and leave o Leonidas and Spartans could not withdraw himself Leaving without order would be disobedient Got a great name after the battle for staying to fight with Spartans o Sacrifice in last battle Persians had to be forced into battle Spartans just did it fighting to the bitter end All Spartans and Thesbians die, Thebians surrender Battle of Salamis o Decisive victory for Greeks o Persians invasion started to die down Thursday, November 1, 2007: Athenian Democracy Parthenon as a Symbol o Ancient Greece o Sits on a big limestone o Principle sanctuary, one of many o Dedicated to Athena o 447-432 BCE A “Map” of Topics o Democracy Polis as citizens o Empire Disturbed Sparta o Peloponnesian War Last 27 years Empire was primary cause of war Drained energy of Greek states o Stasis (Civil Disorder) Affected men’s behavior o Crisis of Consciousness & Conscience The Term o Demokratia Not positive term Coined by enemies, opponents, critics of Athenian system
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Athenians tried to avoid term or use it apologetically o Rule of the Demos Rule of the common people Rule of the many o Isegoria: equality of speaking
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