WC pp. 31-46 - I. The Development of Civilization Egypt A....

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I. The Development of Civilization Egypt A. Egyptians Geography 1. Regular summer flooding on Nile River a. Had the richest soil in Mediterranean b. “Black Land” c. River was factor that brought the nation together 2. Uninhabitable desert, no rain a. “Red Land” B. Egyptian culture 1. Powerful, centralized, bureaucratic state headed by pharaohs a. Pharaohs thought of as gods C. Egyptian history divided into “kingdoms” and “period” 1. Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms time of strength, prosperity, and unity D. Predynastic Egypt (C. 10,000-3100 BCE) 1. Period of time before the pharaohs and their dynasties 2. Egypt’s population a. Rose through a combination of natural increase and immigration b. People from all over Africa and western Asia came to Egypt 3. Merimde Beni Salama a. First known permanent settlement in Egypt b. Southwestern part of Nile Delta c. Farming community d. Copper important import i. Allowed residents to replace stone tool with metal ones 4. Nile Delta=Lower Egypt 5. Upper Egypt first cities developed a. Nekhen, Naqada, This, Abydos developed high degrees of occupational and social specialization b. Build elaborate temples and shrine complexes for local gods 6. Two Nascent Kingdoms: Upper and Lower Egypt a. Upper Egypt banded together under leadership of This b. Lower Egypt adapted own form of loose political organization E. The Unification of Egypt: The Archaic Period (3100-C. 2686 BCE) 1. Manetho a. Priest who developed numbering system for pharaonic dynasties b. “Dynasty 0”, early kings who helped in initial unification i. Manetho did not record ii. “King Scorpion” Upper Egyptian strongman iii. King Narmer ruled both Upper and Lower Egypt 2. Pharaoh identified closely with divinity a. Regarded as earthly version of the falcon god Horus b. Helped with unity of Egyptian people F. Language and Writing 1. Hieroglyphs or “sacred carvings” a. Egyptians system of writings based on picturesque symbols
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b. Jean Francois Champollion deciphered them with Rosetta Stone i. Document contains three version of the same text, written in ancient Greek, demotic, and hieroglyphics
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HIST 111 taught by Professor Joshel during the Fall '08 term at University of Washington.

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WC pp. 31-46 - I. The Development of Civilization Egypt A....

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