THE STUDY OF CHINA: Introduction - China holds considerable importance to the field of comparative politics due to its uniqueness; China’s culture, language, political thought, and history are considerably different from that of all Western nations. - Although the West has made significant impacts on modern Chinese history, the manner by which China has reacted to these is uniquely Chinese. - When its characteristics are brought to limelight, however, China loses this uniqueness. o In the middle 19 th century, the Qing dynasty succumbed to defeat against the West and were forced to renounce their unique political institutions. o From then on, political development in China revolved around the necessity of obtaining the winning hand in the international struggle for power. As a result, China’s uniqueness was not in the unique nature
-The KMT and its followers quickly fled to Taiwan following the 1949 Chinese revolution. The KMT rule has experienced a more peaceful transition to democracy and open markets than the CCP, however both have arguably succumbed to international forces.-A rapid industrialization required strong state intervention, however subsequent growth required a liberalization of the market. This, in turn led to demands for greater political tolerance and a shift in cultural attitudes from collectivism to individualism.-In sum, there exists a certain uniqueness to the political responses of China to international forces, however they can still be understood and have been guided in terms of a global context.Historical Background-Imperial China was a static system; dynasties came and went from the Han dynasty (206 B.C. TO A.D 220) to the early twentieth century, with a systematic patriarchal social structure and absolutist-monarchical political institutions.
oConfucianism as the state ideology, emphasized social order and filial piety and loyalty to the Emperor.oStrong empire until Yuan dynasty (1229-1305), dominating nearby East-Asian nations.-
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