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WC pp. 138-139, pp. 143-162 - I Failures of the...

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I. Failures of the Fourth-Century Polis A. Peloponnesian War Left Sparta as Power in Greek World 1. Spartan politicians were divided over wisdom of committing Spartan force beyond frontiers 2. Corinthian War a. Athens, Argos, Corinth, and Thebes aligned itself against Sparta B. The Struggle for Hegemony 1. After Corinthian War, Spartans put garrison in Thebes for four years a. Grave affront to freedom of polis 2. Thebans regained their autonomy and elected Epaminondas as leader a. Fierce patriot and military genius b. Formed an elite hoplite unit known as Theban Sacred Band made up of 150 homosexual couples c. Developed lighter armed troops d. Ready for another duel with Spartans 3. Theban and Spartan armies met at Leuctra a. Epaminondas placed his best troops on right side of formation b. Result was smashing Spartans on their right side c. He followed victory by marching through Messenia freeing the helots 4. Thebans and Spartans fought again but Athens on Spartan side a. Epaminondas fell in battle b. Athens attempted to fill the vacuum by establishing a naval confederacy, organized more equitably than Delian League 5. Poleis had internal turmoil C. Social and Economic Crises 1. Incessant warfare, combined with internal political struggles, affected society and economy in Greek world a. Wealthy cities had exhausted their resources b. Many people driven from their homes and reduced to slavery c. Towns ravaged d. Orchards and vineyard destroyed e. Standards of living declined 2. Unemployment was widespread a. During wartime men were rowers or soldiers in the service of their city b. When city at peace many would become mercenaries 3. Mercenary service was disruptive to household-based culture of poleis a. When mercenaries couldn’t find work abroad they would likely terrorize Greek countryside II. The Rise of Macedon and the Conquests of Alexander A. Macedon 1. Had been a weak kingdom ruled by a royal house 2. Even close to collapsing with many dominate barbarians around 3. King came to power who consolidated the southern Balkans under rule by the name of Philip II
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B. The Reign of Philip II (359-336 BCE) 1. First problem was to stabilize northern borders a. Through combination of warfare and diplomacy, he subdued the tribes of southern Balkans and got their territory 2. Turned phalanx from ill-organized peasants, into highly drilled, well- armed fighting machine a. Organized an elite cavalry: came from nobility 3. Growing power of Macedonia alarmed Greek world a. Athenian orator Demosthenes and others believed Philip was a half-barbarian aggressor whose goal was to aim the independence of the poleis and have Greece under his rule 4. Philip’s expansion to the north was not aimed to Athens a.
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