WC pp. 175-184 - I The Fateful Wars with Carthage A...

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I. The Fateful Wars with Carthage A. Expansion 1. 265 BCE Romans controlled most of Italian peninsula 2. Not sure if expansion was a deliberate policy B. The Punic Wars 1. Carthage a. Great maritime empire that stretched along the northern coast of Africa b. Founded as a Phoenician colony c. Developed into rich and powerful state d. Far superior at this time than Romans 2. First Punic War a. Began because Rome’s fear that Carthaginians might gain control of Messina b. Fighting went on for 23 years c. Peace agreement which force Carthage to cede all of Sicily to Rome and pay a large indemnity d. Roman senators sought to renegotiate and seized Corsica and Sardinia 3. Second Punic War a. Began because Carthage tried to expand into Spain i. Romans thought it was a direct threat to them b. Last 16 years c. Rome first thrown off guard by commander Hannibal d. Discipline of Rome and its allies were able to overcome military genius of Hannibal e. Publius Cornelius Scipio defeated Hannibal to end war and was honored 4. Roman Senators demanded Carthage give up everything a. Even abandon their city b. Carthage refused and resulted in a Third Punic War c. Romans ended war very quickly and sold all remaining Carthaginians into slavery C. Territorial Expansion 1. Wars with Carthage brought great expansion a. New overseas provinces in Sicily, North Africa, and Spain b. Just the beginning of westward expansion 2. Able to gain territory rapidly because other Mediterranean powers teamed up with Carthaginians, but when Carthage fell everything fell to Romans II. Society and Culture in the Late Republic A. Economic and Social Change 1. Romans took slavery for granted a. Huge increase in slave numbers in result from expansion 2. Slaves worked a. Agricultural laborers for aristocracy
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b. Little work within the city 3. Roman economy remained agrarian and noncommercialized until mid- 3 rd century 4. Expansion brought Roman sophisticated commercial economy a. Principle beneficiary were equestrians i. Profited from foreign luxury goods ii. Operated mines, built roads, collected taxes
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WC pp. 175-184 - I The Fateful Wars with Carthage A...

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