EQ: Thesis Statement: I.The Building of American States: Midcent new republic absorbed almost all the temperate lands of NA- unstable society composed of varied regions w/ diverse economic & social structures. Civil War 1860s differences over slaves & rights of individual states- federal govern. Canada independence Brit w/o war- diverse but avoided civil war; weak federal govern- provinces power over local. Latin America- more diverse-new joined in confederation.(19th) fragmented region, states faced problems & divisions. A.The United States: Westward Expansion and Civil War: need to construct machinery of govern. 1780s rebellions colonies’ leaders constitution- federal govern responsible, authority local to states, admission of new states & territories- after DOI, limited vote(property only). Enlightenment=1820 property qualification disappeared; almost all participated. ●Westward Expansion & Manifest Destiny: Britain ceded all lands btwn Apalachin & Mississippi River to US after revolution. 1803, Naplo needed to fund France, US purchased France's Louisiana Territory(2x size), west to Rocky Mountains. 1804-1806- expedition of Lewis & Clark mapped & resources. West of cheap land to cultivate. 1840s, coast-to-coast expansion claimed as manifest destiny of US.●Conflict w/ Indigenous Peoples: Had alliances, sought Brit colonial officials in Canada but 1830, Indian Removal Act- east natives to move west of Mississippi- Oklahoma(1st Seminoles- some resisted & retreated to Florida). Thou Cherokees died on the "Trail of Tears" to Oklahoma- disease, starvation, etc. Sioux, Comanche, Pawnee, Apache possessed firearms & skills->Battle of Little Bighorn 1876. Sioux victory- U.S. massacre @ Wounded Knee, 1890, ended Indian Wars.●The Mexican-American War: 1845-1848 Texas declared independence from Mexico in 1836(most American migrants), annexed by US 1845. US-Mexican conflict over border ended w/ U.S. victory. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848, US purchased Texas, California, New Mexico. ●Sectional Conflict: north Delaware vs south over slavery. Decline of tobacco but 19th cotton cultivation in south dependent on slaves. Pp rose from 500 thou to 2 mill- north no slavery to new territories. Missouri Compromise 1820- balance btwn slave & free- Lincoln “a house divided against itself cannot stand”- president, 1860; publicly opp to slavery.●The U.S. Civil War: 1861-1865. W/ Lincoln's election, 11 south states seceded from Union. South believed economy of cotton & slaves-> self-sufficient. 19th south most major source of cotton, to BRit- manu goods from Brit. North preserve Union & opp. to slavery- surrection & act of betrayal. Stalemate till 1863, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation- abolition a goal of war. 1865, the industrial(⅔ railroad lines) north defeated agri south. War ended slavery, enhanced federal govern. B.The Canadian Dominion: Independence without War: ●Autonomy & Division: characterized Canadian history. 2 dominant ethnic groups- BRit & French- fears of US expansion brought unity. French(RCC) Quebec taken by Brit(Protestant- Ontario) after 7 Yrs' War. Brit authorities- large concessions to French Canadians. After 1781, many Brit loyalists fled US to seek refuge in Canada.