HRM 360 notes for Exam 3.pdf - Chp 2 Individual Differences...

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Chp. 2: Individual Differences: Personality and Ability Individual differences: the ways in which people differ from each other. Managers need to understand individual differences because they have an impact on the feelings, thoughts, and behaviors of each member of an organization. Individual differences affect, for example, job satisfaction, job performance, job stress, and leadership. 2 types of individual differences: 1. Personality differences 2. Differences in Ability Personality: Personality is the pattern of relatively enduring ways that a person feels, thinks, and behaves. Personality is an important factor in accounting for why employees act the way they do in organizations and why they have favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward their jobs and organizations. 2 determinants of Personality: 1. Nature (50%): Biological heritage, genetic makeup. 50 percent of the variation we observe in people’s personalities can be attributed to nature—to genetic factors.that personality is quite stable over periods of time ranging from 5 to 10 years. This does not mean that personality cannot change; it means that personality is likely to change only over many years.However, in addition to personality, the organizational situation also affects work attitudes and behaviors. In some organizations, strong situational constraints and pressures (such as job requirements or strict rules and regulations) force people to behave in a certain way, regardless of their personalities.show, in organizations in which situational pressures on employees’ behaviors are strong, personality may not be a good predictor of on-the-job behavior. 2. Nurture(50%): life experiences The interaction of Personality and Situational Factors: Trait: A specific component of personality that describes the particular tendencies a person has to feel, think, and act in certain ways, such as in a shy or outgoing, critical or accepting, compulsive or easy-going manner. The big 5 model of personality:
1. Extraversion → AKA positive affectivity. The tendency to OR a personality trait that predisposes individuals to experience positive emotional states and feel good about oneself and the world around one. a. Extraverts: people high on the extraversion scale—tend to be sociable, affectionate, and friendly b. Introverts : people low on the extraversion scale—are less likely to experience positive emotional states and have fewer social interactions with others. 2. Neuroticism→ AKA negative affectivity, opposite of Extraversion. Affectivity—reflects people’s tendencies to experience negative emotional states, feel distressed, and generally view themselves and the world around them negatively.Individuals high on neuroticism are more likely than individuals low on neuroticism to experience negative emotions. Neuroticism, however, is a trait that all normal, psychologically healthy individuals possess to a certain degree. Individuals high on neuroticism are sometimes more critical of themselves and their performance than people low on neuroticism. That

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