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1Substance Use Hewan A. Tesfaye Grand Canyon University: PSY- 622August 26, 2020
2Substance UseDrugs act on the brain's pleasure pathway, the user experiences intense euphoria followed by related emotional highs (National Research Council.,1993). Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol, and illegal drugs such as opioids, Marijuana (in some states), Hallucinogens, tobacco, and many more (National Research Council.,1993). This essay will discuss why Americans seemingly have such a desire for illegal narcotics and how treatment for substance use would be different if it was considered adisease versus a choice or behavior change. Lastly, an examination of the theories of psychopathology and how it relates to substance use will be listed. Definition of Substance UseSubstance addiction and/or abuse is a complicated disorder characterized by compulsive alcohol or drug use that points to vital severance in everyday existence, including loss of work, relationships, and health (National Research Council.,1993). Substance abuse and/or repeated drug and alcohol use produces chemical dependence or permanent alterations to the way the brain operates and functions (CITE). All abused substances modify the sections of the brain liable for judgment, self-control, motivation, emotional regulation, memory, and learning by hijacking the brain's normal reward pathways (CITE). Moreover, the use of the substance can getout of hand for individuals; when utilizing a drug that is addictive to help eliminate emotions and/or pain that can take over the person's life, which then results in the long- term affect or death (CITE). However, the term substance abuse or drug abuse most frequently refers to the useof a drug with such frequency that it affects the mental or physical impairment to the individual or damages one's social functioning abilities (CITE).Illegal Narcotics in America
3Historically, drug use has been viewed as a dilemma reserved for the underprivileged anddisadvantaged, but modern studies have debunked the myth Heshmat., 2017). Recent studies proved many Americans are enduring from the desire for illegal drugs due to the rise in chronic pain leading to an expansion in opioid prescriptions, which has then paved a path to heroin misuse and dependence Heshmat., 2017).