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Unformatted text preview: 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 General Chemistry I and II Lab Manual Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Dakota State University Page 95 of 232 Experiment 7: Quantum Mechanics 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 General Chemistry I and II Lab Manual Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Dakota State University Page 96 of 232 Experiment 7: Quantum Mechanics 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Te Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Dakota State University General Chemistry I and II Lab Manual 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 7s2 Page 97 of 232 Experiment 7: Quantum Mechanics 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 General Chemistry I and II Lab Manual Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lw Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Part II: Electronic Configuration and the Periodic Chart I’ve provided for you a filled, and an empty, periodic chart. Be very careful to note the difference between the “classic” periodic chart (the filled periodic chart) and the empty periodic chart that more accurately reflects the filling of the shells in the sixth and seventh period. Fill in just the very last portion of the electronic configuration (from above). Answer the following questions: (1) Why are the first two columns offset? (2) Why are the last six columns offset? (3) Why are there ten columns of transition metals? (4) Why do I contend that it is more appropriate to put La and Ac in the bottom two periods, and put Lu and Lr in the transition metals? (5) Why don’t we see the use of any subshells higher than the “f” subshell? Dakota State University Page 98 of 232 Experiment 7: Quantum Mechanics General Chemistry I and II Lab Manual (6) IF enough elements are created to necessitate the use of the “g” subshell (the one immediately following the “f” subshell), how many columns would this block need in the periodic chart? Part III: HyperChem Often, one of the biggest problems with quantum mechanics is the abstract nature of it. The concept of shells, subshells, orbitals and spin all arise as mathematical solutions to Schroedinger’s equation, and our only verification that the results are reasonable at all is by comparison with experiment. We will show in later experiments how these calculations can be used to calculate experimental results, but for the time being, let’s at least get used to what these mathematical tells us by looking at the shapes of orbitals. Start HyperChem on your system. Open up the build tool/periodic chart by double clicking on the “draw” tool. Click on Krypton (Kr); this is the first noble gas that uses s, p, d and f subshells. Put a single Krypton atom on the screen (it should appear as a simple circle). Choose “SetUp” and click on “Ab Initio.” This will solve Schroedinger’s equation for Kr...
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